Micro II Exam 6

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Micro II Exam 6
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Micro II Exam 6
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  1. the simplest and smallest forms of life known
    viruses
  2. require an electron microscope to see them
    viruses
  3. some consider them to not be alive because they cannot metabolize their own energy or reproduce themselves without the components of another living cell
    viruses
  4. they are obligate intracellular parasites
    viruses
  5. they pass through biological filters that would retain bacteria because of their size
    viruses
  6. most antibiotics work by interrupting the metabolism of bacteria but this doesn't affect _________
    viruses
  7. a nucleic acid core
    the basic structure of viruses
  8. composed of either RNA or DNA
    nucleic acid core of a virus
  9. the core is surrounded by a protein coat called a capsid
    the basic structure of viruses
  10. composed of individual structural sub-units called capsomeres
    capsid
  11. capsid is composed of individual structural sub-units called
    capsomeres
  12. some viruses have an _______ around the capsid
    envelope
  13. comes from the host cell nuclear or protoplasmic membrane as the virus exits after replication
    envelope
  14. mature infectious viruses are called
    virions
  15. diseases of the skin
    dermotropic diseases
  16. caused by the variola virus
    smallpox
  17. The simplest and smallest forms of life known.
    viruses
  18. Cannot be filtered out by filtration.
    viruses
  19. An envelope is only present in some.
    viruses
  20. How many types of nucleic acid can be found in a single virus?
    one
  21. Where is the DNA or RNA of a virus found?
    capsid
  22. What is the protein coat around the nucleic acid core of a virus called?
    capsid
  23. What are the subunits that make up the capsid of a virus?
    capsomeres
  24. What are mature, infectious viruses called?
    virions
  25. Viruses having an affinity for the skin are called what?
    Dermotropic diseases
  26. transmitted via droplet spray or fomites contaminated by droplet spray
    • variola virus
    • smallpox
  27. the virus is very hardy so can survive on fomites longer
    • variola virus
    • smallpox
  28. causes the sudden appearance of a skin rash that progresses through a series of stages that ends with the lesions scabbing over and falling off after about 3 or 4 weeks
    smallpox
  29. the disease has been eradicated all around the world by vaccination
    smallpox
  30. Variola virus
    causes small pox
  31. The virus is very hardy and can survive on fomites longer than many others.
    • variola virus
    • smallpox
  32. Has been eradicated around the world.
    smallpox
  33. known as rubeola or "red" measles
    measles
  34. an acute, highly contagious disease
    measles
  35. one of the most contagious of the childhood rash diseases
    measles
  36. transmitted by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected individuals
    measles
  37. the rash begins at the head and moves downward
    measles
  38. Controlled with the MMR vaccine(3).
    measles, mumps, rubella
  39. koplik spots form on the gums and inside of the cheeks
    measles
  40. koplik spots form on the gums and inside of the cheeks
    small white spots
  41. can be controlled with MMR
    measles, mumps, rubella
  42. small white spots
    Koplik spots
  43. small white spots form on the gums and inside of the cheeks
    Koplik spots
  44. Rash begins at the head and moves downward.(2)
    • 1. measles
    •     rubeola
    •     "red" measles
    • 2. german measles
    •     rubella
    •     three day measles
  45. Name the less severe form of measles.
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  46. known as rubella or three day measles
    german measles
  47. milder form of measles than rubeola
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  48. transmitted by direct contact with nasal or throat secretions of infected individuals
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  49. causes a pale pink rash & slight fever
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  50. rash begins at the head and moves downward
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  51. is most dangerous in pregnant women during the first trimester
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  52. it can cause miscarriage, still birth, or several serious birth defects
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  53. Causes a pale pink rash and slight fever
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  54. May cause stillbirths, miscarriages, or birth defects.
    • german measles
    • rubella
    • three day measles
  55. also known as Varicella
    chickenpox
  56. caused by the varicella-zoster virus
    chickenpox
  57. the same virus that causes shingles in adults
    varicella-zoster virus
  58. transmitted via droplet spray or through the vesicular fluid of the lesions
    • chicken pox
    • varicella
    • varicella-zoster virus
  59. more readily transmitted than shingles
    • chicken pox
    • varicella
    • varicella-zoster virus
  60. causes a generalized itchy, vesicular rash
    • chicken pox
    • varicella
    • varicella-zoster virus
  61. begins as smooth, red spots that develop into blisters that last 3-4 days before forming crusty scabs
    generalized itchy, vesicular rash
  62. there may also be a fever and general illfeeling
    • chicken pox
    • varicella
    • varicella-zoster virus
  63. the rash tends to appear in 2-4 successive crops rather than all at once
    • chicken pox
    • varicella
    • varicella-zoster virus
  64. the lesions of chicken pox may appear nearly anywhere
    • scalp
    • mouth
    • conjuctiva
    • cornea
    • upper respiratory system
    • vagina
  65. Varicella-Zoster virus(2)
    • Chicken pox
    • Shingles
  66. Causes a generalized, itchy, vesicular rash.
    Chicken pox

  67. Appears in 2 to 4 successive crops of rash

    Causes a generalized, itchy, vesicular rash.
    Chicken pox
  68. Where might the lesions of chickenpox be found? And where are they most prominent?
    Anywhere.

    • scalp
    • mouth
    • conjuctiva
    • cornea
    • upper respiratory system
    • vagina
  69. also known as Herpes Zoster
    Shingles
  70. caused by the Varicella Zoster virus that has reactivated in the body
    Shingles
  71. the same virus that cause chicken pox
    Varicella Zoster
  72. can be transmitted via droplet spray or through the vesicular fluid of the lesions
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  73. not as easily transmitted as chicken pox
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  74. the vesicles occur along skin areas supplied by certain sensory nerves
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  75. occurs unilaterally
    • vesicles of
    •   Shingles
    •   herpes zoster
    •   Varicella Zoster
  76. most prominent on the head, neck, & upper torso
    • vesicles of
    •   Shingles
    •   herpes zoster
    •   Varicella Zoster
  77. occurs primarily in older adults and immunocompromised individuals
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  78. causes localized numbness, tingling, and often severe pain
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  79. no treatment available except to treat the symptoms after contracting the disease
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  80. there is now a vaccine available for at-risk people
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  81. Occurs unilaterally.
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  82. Causes localized numbness, tingling and severe pain.
    • Shingles
    • herpes zoster
    • Varicella Zoster
  83. it is a recurrent viral infection
    Herpes simplex I and II
  84. forms vesicles at the affected site
    Herpes simplex I and II
  85. after first infection the individual becomes a carrier
    Herpes simplex I and II
  86. the virus remains latent in the nerve sheaths of sensory neurons
    Herpes simplex I and II
  87. there is no cure for this infection
    Herpes simplex I and II
  88. the recurrences will continue for life
    Herpes simplex I and II
  89. recurrences of herpes often triggered by
    • stress
    • fever
    • sunburn/overexposure to sun
    • menses/menstral cycle
  90. transmitted by oral and respiratory secretions
    Herpes simplex I
  91. affects the skin and mucous membranes
    Herpes simplex I
  92. causes cold sores & fever blisters
    Herpes simplex I
  93. transmitted by sexual contact
    Herpes simplex II
  94. usually affects the genital area
    Herpes simplex II
  95. causes similar lesions as in Type I
    Herpes simplex II
  96. A recurrent viral infection.
    Herpes simplex I and II
  97. What triggers a reoccurrence of herpes?
    • stress
    • fever
    • sunburn/overexposure to skin
    • menses/menstral cycle
  98. diseases of the respiratory tract
    pneumotropic diseases
  99. a common upper respiratory viral infection
    influenza
  100. usually called the flu
    influenza
  101. transmitted via droplet spray or direct contact with nasal secretions
    influenza
  102. influenza characterized by
    • fever
    • muscle pain
    • vomiting
    • chills
    • cough
    • headache
    • sore throat
  103. coryza
    common cold
  104. an acute viral infection of the upper respiratory tract
    common cold
  105. transmitted via droplet spray or direct contact with nasal secretions
    common cold
  106. common cold characterized by
    • runny nose
    • runny eyes
    • mild sore throat
    • nasal congestion
    • headache
  107. causes a severe, life-threatening respiratory disease
    hantavirus
  108. first recognized in 1993 in the "Four Corners" area of the United States
    hantavirus
  109. transmitted to humans by the inhalation of dried feces, urine or saliva of the long-tailed deer mouse
    hantavirus
  110. could possibly enter through open wounds, abrasions or by ingestion as well
    hantavirus
  111. the disease starts out as a nondescript flu-like illness fever, muscle aches, and coughing
    hantavirus
  112. back pain suddenly develops, indicating lung problems
    hantavirus
  113. the lungs rapidly deteriorate and fill with fluid
    hantavirus
  114. death follows soon due to respiratory failure or shock

    usually within 5-7 days
    hantavirus
  115. central nervous system diseases
    neurotropic diseases
  116. also known as hydrophobia
    rabies
  117. an acute encephalomyelitis
    rabies
  118. transmitted to humans through the saliva of an infected animal via a bite
    rabies
  119. could possibly enter through open wounds, abrasions or mucous membranes
    rabies
  120. there are two forms of the disease
    • furious rabies
    • paralytic rabies
  121. manifests with bizarre behavior ranging from severe agitation to periods of depression
    furious rabies
  122. confusion becomes more extreme as the disease progresses
    furious rabies
  123. person becomes very aggressive
    furious rabies
  124. hydrophobia develops
    furious rabies
  125. hypersalivation occurs

    it may be 1 to 1.5 liters per 24 hours
    furious rabies
  126. excessive sweating
    furious rabies
  127. a coma ensues and death occurs usually within 7 to 10 days following the onset of symptoms
    furious rabies
  128. paralysis begins at the point of the bite
    paralytic rabies
  129. spreads to the rest of the body
    paralytic rabies
  130. it finally affects the pharangeal & respiratory muscles causing death
    paralytic rabies
  131. a central nervous system disease affecting the motor neurons of the spinal cord
    poliomyelitis
  132. transmitted via the fecal-oral route or contact with nasal/oral secretions
    poliomyelitis
  133. it begins as a gastrointestinal disturbance
    poliomyelitis
  134. progresses to various levels of disease

    one of which may be the well known paralytic polio
    poliomyelitis
  135. this disease has been controlled by the salk & sarin vaccine
    poliomyelitis
  136. it is a goal of the World health Organization to declare the world eradicated of polio in the next few years
    poliomyelitis
  137. an acute inflammation of the brain caused by a virus
    Viral encephalitis
  138. transmitted via the bite of mosquitoes or sometimes ticks or flies
    Viral encephalitis
  139. the arthropod vector acquires the virus by biting an infected individual
    Viral encephalitis
  140. the virus replicates in the vector and spreads to the salivary glands
    Viral encephalitis
  141. it's spread to another person when a vector bites them
    Viral encephalitis
  142. most cases are asymptomatic
    Viral encephalitis
  143. Viral encephalitis cases that exhibit symptoms that include
    • headache
    • fever
    • pain
    • neck stiffening
    • loss of energy
  144. more serious forms of Viral encephalitis cases that exhibit symptoms that include
    • loss of muscle power in arms & legs
    • double vision
    • speach & stroke
    • coma
    • fatality rates as high as sixty percent
  145. diseases affecting the viscera
    Viscerotropic diseases
  146. infectious hepatitis
    Hepatitis A
  147. spread directly from person to person by the fecal oral route

    due to poor sanitation methods
    Hepatitis A
  148. not as serious as other forms
    Hepatitis A
  149. serum hepatitis
    Hepatitis B
  150. transmitted through contaminated body fluids
    Hepatitis B
  151. represents an occupational hazard to people who work with blood and blood products
    Hepatitis B
  152. more serious than hepatitis A
    Hepatitis B
  153. may result in chronic hepatitis and permanent liver damage
    Hepatitis B
  154. a defective virus that must have Hep B present to infect
    Hepatitis D
  155. it can lead to a super infection if both are present
    Hepatitis D (with B present)
  156. leading to an exacerbation of chronic Hepatitis
    Hepatitis D (with B present)
  157. Non-A Non-B hepatitis
    Hepatitis C
  158. transmitted through contaminated body fluids
    Hepatitis C
  159. more serious than Hep A or B because there is not yet a vaccine available
    Hepatitis C
  160. has been known to mimic Hep C
    Hepatitis G
  161. glandular diseases
    Adenotropic
  162. gets its name from the infection of the parotid glands
    Epidemic parotitis or mumps
  163. salivary glands located anterior & inferior to the ear

    may affect other salivary glands as well
    parotid glands
  164. occurs most commonly in children 2-12 years of age
    Epidemic parotitis or mumps
  165. causes swelling and tenderness of the glands and fever
    Epidemic parotitis or mumps
  166. spread via droplet spray or direct contact with infected saliva
    Epidemic parotitis or mumps
  167. if infection occurs in post-pubescent males, it may cause an inflammation of the testes
    • orchitis
    • Epidemic parotitis or mumps
  168. controlled with the MMR vaccine
    Epidemic parotitis or mumps
  169. caused by the Epstein-Barr virus
    infectious mononucleosis
  170. Infectious mononucleosis is an acute disease characterized by:
    • fever
    • malaise
    • sore throat
    • enlargement of the lymph nodes and possibly the spleen
  171. occurs mainly in young adults aged 15-30
    infectious mononucleosis
  172. transmitted via direct contact with infected saliva
    infectious mononucleosis
  173. the kissing disease
    infectious mononucleosis
  174. person may remain infectious for as long as a year after recovery
    infectious mononucleosis
  175. there is no treatment other than rest
    infectious mononucleosis
  176. causes cytomegalic inclusion disease
    Cytomegalovirus
  177. a disease of the glands such as the salivary glands or the liver
    Cytomegalovirus
  178. asymptomatic in most cases
    Cytomegalovirus
  179. causes an infectious mononucleosis-like disease in others
    Cytomegalovirus
  180. establishes a latent infection like herpes that can be reactivated
    Cytomegalovirus
  181. the cells infected with the virus swell in size

        and inclusion bodies develop in the cytoplasm and nucleus
    Cytomegalovirus
  182. Cytomegalovirus transmitted via direct contact with
    • saliva
    • urine
    • blood
    • semen
    • cervical secretions
  183. Cytomegalovirus also transmitted via
    congenital transmission
  184. more serious in immunocompromised individuals
    Cytomegalovirus
  185. caused by the HIV virus
    AIDS
  186. a group of clinical conditions in which there is a dramatic change in the host's susceptibility to opportunistic disease by a reduction in immune defense
    AIDS
  187. it affects the T4 helper cells of the immune system
    AIDS
  188. causes the inability of the host to mount the full spectrum of immune responses needed to ward off opportunistic infections and cancer cells
    AIDS
  189. the opportunistic infections most often associated with HIV infection are
    • Pneumocystic pneumonia
    • kaposi's sarcoma
    • candidiasis
    • cryptococcal meningitis
    • cytomegalovirus infection
    • encephalitis
  190. caused by pneumocystis carinii
    Pneumocystic pneumonia
  191. a fungal form of pneumonia
    pneumocystis carinii
  192. caused by a protein particle called a prion
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
  193. proteins that have folded into a unique three-dimensional form
    prion
  194. they cause other proteins in their presence to conform also
    prion
  195. cause a group of diseases called "slow" virus diseases
    prion
  196. the diseases exhibit some characteristics common to viral diseases

        but no evidence of a virus has been found
    prion
  197. the diseases manifest as uncommon degenerative diseases of the central nervous system
    prion
  198. uncommon degenerative diseases of the central nervous system
    spongiform encephalopathies
  199. the most well-known prion diseases
    • Bovine spongiform encephalopathy
    •       (mad cow disease)
    • Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disese (CJD)
  200. the most evident symptom in humans is dimentia
    • prion
    • spongiform encephalopathies
  201. Causes cold sores and fever blisters.
    Herpes simplex I
  202. An acute, viral infection of the upper respiratory tract characterized by nasal congestion, mild sore throat, fever and runny nose.
    coryza
  203. A common viral infection affecting the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by high fever, chills, sore throat, runny nose, cough and muscle pain.
    influenza
  204. lnhalation of the feces, urine, or saliva of the long-tailed deer mouse.
    hantavirus
  205. Starts as a nondescript flu-like illness but develops into a severe, life- threatening respiratory disease.
    hantavirus
  206. Causes an acute encephalomyelitis.
    rabies
  207. Hypersalivation
    furious rabies
  208. A central nervous system disease affecting the motor neurons of the spinal cord.
    poliomyelitis
  209. Furious and paralytic are the two forms.
    rabies
  210. Aggressiveness, confusion, and sweating are symptoms.
    furious rabies
  211. Paralysis of the pharyngeal and respiratory muscles.
    paralytic rabies
  212. Has been controlled by the Salk and Sabin vaccines.
    poliomyelitis
  213. Spread via the salivary glands of an insect vector.
    viral encephalitis
  214. Must have hepatitis B present to infect.
    hepatitis D
  215. Mimics hepatitis C.
    hepatitis G
  216. Parotid glands
    salivary glands anterior & inferior to the ear
  217. Affects the testes in post-pubescent males.
    • endemic parotitis
    • mumps
  218. Swelling and tenderness of the salivary glands.
    • endemic parotitis
    • mumps
  219. Epstein-Barr virus
    infectious mononucleosis
  220. Occurs mainly in young adults age 15 to 30.
    infectious mononucleosis
  221. May remain infectious for up to a year after recovery.
    infectious mononucleosis
  222. Causes an infectious mononucleosis-like disease that establishes a recurrent infection like that of herpes.
    cytomegalovirus
  223. Causes the development of inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the host cell.
    cytomegalovirus
  224. Causes increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections.
    AIDS
  225. What cells does the HIV virus affect?
    T4 helper cells
  226. List the common opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
    • pneumocystic pneumonia
    • kaposi's sarcoma
    • candidiasis
    • cryptococcal meningitis
    • cytomegalovirus infection
    • encephalitis
  227. Caused by a protein particle called a prion.
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
  228. Uncommon degenerative diseases of the central nervous system are caused by what?
    Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)
  229. The most evident symptom is dementia.
    • prion
    • spongiform encephalopathies
  230. Viruses having an affinity for the respiratory tract are called what?
    pneumotropic
  231. Viruses having an affinity for the nervous system are called what?
    neurotropic
  232. Viruses having an affinity for the organs of the body are called what?
    viscerotropic
  233. Viruses having an affinity for the immune system are called what?
    immunotropic
  234. Viruses having an affinity for the glands are called what?
    adenotropic
  235. What diseases are dermotropic?
    • 1. small pox
    • 2. measles
    •     rubeola
    •     "red measles"
    • 3. German measles
    •     rubella
    •     three-day measles
    • 4. chickenpox
    •     varicella
    • 5. shingles
    •     herpes zoster
    • 6. Herpes simplex I and II
  236. What diseases are pneumotropic?
    • 1. influenza
    • 2. coryza
    •     common cold
    • 3. hantavirus
  237. What diseases are neurotropic?
    • 1. Rabies
    •     Hydrophobia
    •     Furious rabies
    •     Paralytic rabies
    • 2. Poliomyelitis
    • 3. Viral encephalitis
  238. What diseases are viscerotropic?
    Hepatitis A, B, C, D, G
  239. What diseases are adenotropic?
    • 1. Epidemic parotitis
    •     mumps
    • 2. Infectious mononucleosis
    • 3. Cytomegalovirus
  240. What diseases are immunotropic?
    • 1. AIDS
    • 2. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD)

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