Parasitology

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  1. What are the 2 groups of nematodes?
    • Intestinal nematodes
    • Intestinal-tissue nematodes
  2. What species are included in the intestinal nematodes?
    • Enterobius vermicularis
    • Trichuris trichiura
    • Ascaris lumbricoides
    • Strongyloides stercoralis
    • Necator americanus
    • Ancylostoma duodenale
  3. What species are includes in the intestinal-tissue nematodes?
    • Trichinella spiralis
    • Dracunculus medinenis
  4. What nematode:
    Causes infections (enterobiasis) that are usually self-limiting and characterized by itching and inflammation of the anus
    Diagnosis: CELLOPHANE TAPE PREP AT NIGHT OR EARLY IN THE MORNING BY THE GRAHAM TECHNIQUE
    MORPHOLOGY: THICK, COLORLESS SHELL, LARGE LARVA, EGG IS FLAT ON ONE SIDE LIKE A DEFLATED FOOTBALL
    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm)
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    • Enterobius vermicularis egg
    • (pinworm)
  6. What nematode:
    Causes infections that in children, presents as colitis and dysentery and in adults include abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea
    Diagnosis: EGGS IN FECES ARE BARREL SHAPED, GOLDEN BROWN SHELL, BIPOLAR HYALINE PLUGS ON EACH END OF THE EGG
    Trichuris trichiura (whipworm)
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    • Trichuris trichiura
    • (whipworm)
  8. What nematode:
    Known as the giant intestinal roundworm
    Causes ascariasis, resulting in intestinal tissue destruction and bowel obstruction that can be fatal
    Worms can also micgrate to the lungs, where they cause pulmonary disorders, and to other body sites
    Diagnosis: FERTILIZED &/OR UNFERTILIZED EGGS IN STOOL 
    - FERTILIZED: MORE ROUND, THICK, YELLOW - BROWN SHELL, COARSE MAMMILATED SURFACE, EMBRYO PULLS AWAY FROM INSIDE WALL OF THE SHELL
    - UNFERTILIZED: MORE OVAL, HEAVY ALBUNINOUS COAT, THIN SHELL
    Ascaris lumbricoides
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    • Ascaris lumbricoides eggs
    • (unfertile and fertile)
  10. What nematode:
    Is transmitted by skin contact with contaminated soil (filariform larvae)
    After penetration, larvae migrate through the skin and repeated exposure to larvae can produce an allergic reaction commonly referred to as larva migrans
    Diagnosis: RHABDIDFORM LARVAE IN STOOL OR DUODENAL FLUID (ENTEROTEST - STRING TEST), SHORT BUCCAL CAVITY, NOTCHED OR FORKED TAIL, HOURGLASS ESOPHAGUS, DIFFERENTIATE BETWEEN HOOKWORM AND STRONGYLOIDES BY RHABDITIFORM LARVA (BUCCAL CAVITY) AND FILARIFORM LARVA (TIP OF TAIL)
    Strongyloides stercoralis
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    Strongyloides stercoralis
  12. What nematodes:
    Causes human hookworm infections
    Humans acquire the filariform larvae through skin penetration
    • Necator americanus (New World hookworm)
    • Ancylostoma duodenale (Old World hookworm)
  13. What nematode:
    Symptoms: GROUND ITCH FROM LARVAL PENETRATION, MILD PNEUMONIA, INTESTINE:  ENTERITIS, MICROCYTIC HYPOCHROMIC ANEMIA (IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA)  
    Diagnosis: EGGS IN FECES, OVAL, THIN, MOOTH, COLORLESS SHELL W/ 4-8 EMBRYONIC CLEAVAGES, ALL HOOKWORM EGGS LOOK THE SAME - CAN ONLY REPORT HOOKWORM - DIFFERENTIATE BY ADULT BUCCAL CAVITY
    • Hookworm
    • Necator americanus (New World hookworm)
    • Ancylostoma duodenale (Old World hookworm)
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    • Necator americanus
    • (New World hookworm)
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    Ancylostoma duodenale (Old World hookworm)
  16. What nematode:
    Causes trichinosis with symptoms including diarrhea, blurred vision, muscle edema (mostly striated muscle), and coughing
    Infections can be fatal
    Diagnosis: TISSUE BIOPSY OF INFECTED MUSCLE SHOWING THE ENCYSTED LARVAE, SEROLOGICAL TESTING (3-4 WKS AFTER INFECTION) FOR THE ANTI-TRICHENELLA ANTIBODIES
    Reservoirs: Pigs
    Trichinella spiralis
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    Trichinella spiralis
  18. What nematode:
    Humans acquire the infection by the ingestion of infected copepods (water fleas) carrying larvae
    Diagnosis: Observing worms emerging from ulcerated areas of the body
    Dracunculus medinensis
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    Dracunculus medinensis
  20. What filariae:
    Causes subcutaneous tissue infections and infections of the conjunctival lining of the eye
    Diagnosis: blood smear exam for microfilariae (sheath present)
    Loa Loa
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    Loa Loa
  22. What filariae:
    Causes Malayan filariasis, a condition that produces lesions in the lymphatics, and elephantiasis may result
    Diagnosis: Microscopic exam of blood smears for microfilariae (samples collected at night offer the largest yield)
    Brugia malayi
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    Brugia malayi
  24. What filariae:
    Is transmitted by the Culex, Anopheles, or Aedes mosquito
    Causes Bancroftian filariasis - a condition that produces lesions in the lymphatics
    Elephantiasis may result
    Diagnosis: DEMONSTRATION OF MICROFILARIA IN THE BLOOD (SPECIMEN MUST BE DRAWN 10PM - 2AM, SEROLOGICAL TESTS (NONSPECIFIC)
    Wuchereria bancrofti
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    Wuchereria bancrofti
  26. What filariae:
    Causes river blindness (eye infections lead to blindness)
    Diagnosis: tissue or ophthalmologic analysis for microfilariae
    Onchocerca volvulus
Author:
ncrook
ID:
214659
Card Set:
Parasitology
Updated:
2013-06-05 01:11:55
Tags:
Nematodes Filariae
Folders:

Description:
Nematodes and Filariae
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