FA Q4, Calf D, III

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FA Q4, Calf D, III
2013-04-20 17:41:28
FA Q4 Calf III

FA Q4, Calf D, III
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  1. what is cause of winter dysentery in adults that can also cause diarrhea in calves?
    What age calves?
    • coronavirus (more severe than rota)
    • 5-21 days old
  2. what type of disease is seen with coronavirus?
    • respiratory - rhinitis
    • intestinal - severe watery diarrhea (+/-blood, mucous)
  3. where in the GI does coronavirus damage villi
    How does this effect physiology of the disease?
    • Si & Li
    • malabsorptive diarrhea w/excess secretions and osmotic component; lactate wash out
    • maldigestion
  4. what is a common cause of diarrhea in 1-4 week old calves that is zoonotic?
    cryptosporidium parvum
  5. How stable is crypto in the environment?
    very stable, persists for long periods and resistant to most cleaning agents
  6. At what point during infection/exposure does calf shed crypto oocysts?
    • sheds as soon as diarrhea starts (autoinfections)
    • continues days after diarrhea ends
  7. what is pathophysiology of disease with crypto? intra or extracellular?
    • villous atrophy/fusion - malabsorptive diarrhea - starvation
    • Intracellular but extracytoplasmic (hides from drugs)
  8. how is crypto diagnosed and treated?
    • snap test w/giardia (immunoassay) or fecal stain
    • no treatment
  9. What should be on your differential list as cause of rectal prolapse due to tenesmus?
  10. what age are calves affected with coccidia?
    >21 days due to prepatent period of 15-20days
  11. how long after ingestion of crypto oocysts is it infective? how does this compare to coccidia
    • immediately w/crypto
    • oocyst must sporulate (mature oocyst) in environment to be infective - then takes 21 days to show clinical signs
  12. does crypto or coccidia have a nervous form?
  13. how is coccida treated in the herd v. individual?
    • amprolium in water for herd
    • (monitor for thiamine deficiency - polioencephalomalacia)
    • sulfa bolus for individuals
  14. how will diarrhea caused by cold milk/overfeeding be different than clinical signs associated with diarrhea from infective agent?
    nutritional diarrhea not correlated w/depression or fever
  15. what is recommended fat %?
    20% (higher in cold climates)
  16. what should be the first ingredient for protein source? what % should protein source be?
    • milk solids (whey, casein)
    • 20%
  17. why can soy be problem as fiber source?
    high in protein (1%) so limits fiber source
  18. what antibiotics aid in treatment/prevention of scours?
    neomycin and oxytet
  19. how much colostrum should a neonate ingest?
    10% body wt
  20. when should vaccines be given to adult cow if they are to have beneficial effects in colostrum? when should neonates be vaccinated?
    • adult during dry period
    • neonate BEFORE colostrum ingestion
  21. within 48 hours what should total protein measure if good transfer? at what level are you sure transfer failed?
    • good >6.0 (GGT will also be elevated)
    • fail <5.0 (5-5.5 is partial fail)
  22. at what point are IV rather than oral fluids required in dehydrated calf?
    • >8% dehydrated
    • unable to suckle, recumbent, ileus
  23. what should be you evaluate when choosing an electrolyte solution?
    • electrolyes, amino acids to facilitate their uptake
    • osmolality
    • alkalinizing agents
    • energy source
  24. Why doesn't saline solution have beneficial effects when given orally to calf w/diarrhea?
    • Na absorption impaired - if Na can't cross then water can't either;
    • Na now excess in lumen - osmotic gradient pulls more H20 into lumen
  25. Can glucose be given orally to calf w/diarrhea?
    • yes bc glucose absorption not affected by diarrhea
    • glucose also has coupling mechanism to allow Na to be absorbed along w/it
  26. what are possible alkalinizing agents in the solution? which alters abomasum pH?
    • acetate
    • proprionate (will not alter abomasum pH)
    • bicarb (alters abomasum pH - can affect milk clot formation)
  27. why should you not mix milk and electrolyte solutions together?
    Will prevent milk curd formation =>worsen diarrhea