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what is cause of winter dysentery in adults that can also cause diarrhea in calves?
What age calves?
- coronavirus (more severe than rota)
- 5-21 days old
what type of disease is seen with coronavirus?
- respiratory - rhinitis
- intestinal - severe watery diarrhea (+/-blood, mucous)
where in the GI does coronavirus damage villi
How does this effect physiology of the disease?
- Si & Li
- malabsorptive diarrhea w/excess secretions and osmotic component; lactate wash out
what is a common cause of diarrhea in 1-4 week old calves that is zoonotic?
How stable is crypto in the environment?
very stable, persists for long periods and resistant to most cleaning agents
At what point during infection/exposure does calf shed crypto oocysts?
- sheds as soon as diarrhea starts (autoinfections)
- continues days after diarrhea ends
what is pathophysiology of disease with crypto? intra or extracellular?
- villous atrophy/fusion - malabsorptive diarrhea - starvation
- Intracellular but extracytoplasmic (hides from drugs)
how is crypto diagnosed and treated?
- snap test w/giardia (immunoassay) or fecal stain
- no treatment
What should be on your differential list as cause of rectal prolapse due to tenesmus?
what age are calves affected with coccidia?
>21 days due to prepatent period of 15-20days
how long after ingestion of crypto oocysts is it infective? how does this compare to coccidia
- immediately w/crypto
- oocyst must sporulate (mature oocyst) in environment to be infective - then takes 21 days to show clinical signs
does crypto or coccidia have a nervous form?
how is coccida treated in the herd v. individual?
- amprolium in water for herd
- (monitor for thiamine deficiency - polioencephalomalacia)
- sulfa bolus for individuals
how will diarrhea caused by cold milk/overfeeding be different than clinical signs associated with diarrhea from infective agent?
nutritional diarrhea not correlated w/depression or fever
what is recommended fat %?
20% (higher in cold climates)
what should be the first ingredient for protein source? what % should protein source be?
- milk solids (whey, casein)
why can soy be problem as fiber source?
high in protein (1%) so limits fiber source
what antibiotics aid in treatment/prevention of scours?
neomycin and oxytet
how much colostrum should a neonate ingest?
10% body wt
when should vaccines be given to adult cow if they are to have beneficial effects in colostrum? when should neonates be vaccinated?
- adult during dry period
- neonate BEFORE colostrum ingestion
within 48 hours what should total protein measure if good transfer? at what level are you sure transfer failed?
- good >6.0 (GGT will also be elevated)
- fail <5.0 (5-5.5 is partial fail)
at what point are IV rather than oral fluids required in dehydrated calf?
- >8% dehydrated
- unable to suckle, recumbent, ileus
what should be you evaluate when choosing an electrolyte solution?
- electrolyes, amino acids to facilitate their uptake
- alkalinizing agents
- energy source
Why doesn't saline solution have beneficial effects when given orally to calf w/diarrhea?
- Na absorption impaired - if Na can't cross then water can't either;
- Na now excess in lumen - osmotic gradient pulls more H20 into lumen
Can glucose be given orally to calf w/diarrhea?
- yes bc glucose absorption not affected by diarrhea
- glucose also has coupling mechanism to allow Na to be absorbed along w/it
what are possible alkalinizing agents in the solution? which alters abomasum pH?
- proprionate (will not alter abomasum pH)
- bicarb (alters abomasum pH - can affect milk clot formation)
why should you not mix milk and electrolyte solutions together?
Will prevent milk curd formation =>worsen diarrhea