Art exam #2

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Art exam #2
2013-04-29 15:26:57

short answer and multiple choice
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  1. Binder
    Material in paint that causes pigment to bind together e.g. linseed oil or acrylic polymer
  2. Burin
    A tool used in engraving (like a metal pen, it takes notches out)
  3. Barrel vault
    semicircular arch extended in depth.
  4. Buttresses
    A support in the form of a vault or arch
  5. Vehicle
    Liquid used as a carrier  or spreading agent in paints
  6. Gouache
    An opaque (not transparent) water-soluble paint. Watercolor to which opaque white has been added
  7. Glaze
    • In oil paint: transparent layer over paint to make paint stand out.
    • In ceramics: a glassy coating to seal and decorate
  8. Impasto
    Thick paint applied to surface in heavy manner- has appearance of cake frosting or butter
  9. Intaglio
    Any print making technique where lines and areas to be inked are recessed below the surface of the printing plate. e.g. etching, engraving
  10. International style
    Architectural style emerged in Europe btw 1910-1920 where architects avoided applied decoration and only used the buildings material e.g. glass, steel,concrete
  11. Fresco
    Painting technique in which pigments suspended in water are applied to  a damp lime-plaster surface. pigments dry with the plaster.
  12. Print
    A multiple original impression made from a plate, stone, wood block or screen.
  13. Porcelain
    Type of clay for ceramics: white or grayish and fires at 1350C-1500C
  14. Post and Lintel
    In Architecture a structural system that used 2 or more upright posts to support a horizontal beam (lintel)
  15. Edition
    In printmaking:  the total # of prints made and approved by the artist, usually consecutively  numbered.
  16. Engraving
    Intaglio process where grooves are cut into a metal or wood surface with sharp cutting cool (burin)
  17. Etching
    Intaglio process where metal plate is coated w/acid resistant wax then scratched to expose metal to the acid bite where lines are desired.
  18. Encaustic
    A type of painting where pigment is suspended in a binder of hot wax
  19. Relief print
    Printing technique where parts of the printing surface that carry ink are left raised while remaining area (negative space) is cut away. e.g. woodcuts and linocuts
  20. Relief sculpture
    Sculpture in which 3 dimensional forms project from the flat background of which they are a part. Degree of projection is termed high or low relief
  21. Repousse
    Raised in relief by hammering on the reverse side.
  22. Wood engraving
    Form of relief printing in wood. In comparison to woodcut, wood engraving is made w/denser wood cutting into end of grain vs. side
  23. Lithography
    Printmaking using stone or aluminum where image is drawn on with greased crayon. surface is chemically treated so that ink will only stick to waxy drawn on surface
  24. Silkscreen
    Printmaking technique where stencils are applied to screen and ink/paint is pressed through areas of the unblocked screen onto paper or surface beneath.
  25. Straight photography
    Photography that attempts to depict a scene as realistically and objectively as permitted by the medium
  26. Subtractive sculpture
    Sculpture made by removing material from a larger block or form e.g. Bernini's david
  27. Site specific sculpture/art
    Any art created for a specific place which cannot be separated or exhibited apart from its intended environment
  28. Camera obscura
    A dark room or box w/ a small hole in one side , through which an inverted image of the view outside is projected into the wall, screen, or mirror. Image is then traced.
  29. Casting
    A substitutive process where liquid e.g. molten metal, clay, wax or plaster is poured into a mold- once hardened mold is removed revealing shape of the molded object.
  30. Ceramics
     A clay which comes in the form of Earthenware, Stoneware, and Porcelain
  31. Colonnade
    A row of columns usually spanned or connected by beams (lintels)
  32. Concrete
    Liquid building material invented by Romans. Made of water, sand, gravel, and a binder of gypsum, lime, or volcanic rock.
  33. Daguerreotype
    Early photo process invented by  Louise Daguerre which requires metal plate. When exposed to light chemical reactions on plate created 1st photographs.
  34. Dolmen
    A type of single-chamber megalithic tomb, usually consisting of three or more upright stones supporting a large flat horizontal capstone (table),
  35. Addictive sculpture
    Sculpture produced by adding, combining, or building up material from a core or an Armature
  36. Armature
    Rigid framework supporting inner core for clay or other soft sculpting material
  37. Assemblage sculpture
    Creating a sculpture by putting 2gether pieces already formed
  38. Arcade
    A series of arches supported by columns.
  39. Joint block construction
    Process where large blocks are wood are carved and glued together for exterior finishing
  40. Kinetic sculpure
    Sculpture with moving parts
  41. Keystone
    A stone at the highest central point of a round arch, which holds the rest of the arch in place.
  42. Mixed media
    Art made up of more than one medium e.g. paint and wood and glass etc.
  43. Earthenware
    type of clay used for ceramics, fired at  1100C-1150C porous after firing
  44. Masonry
    Building technique where stones or bricks are laid atop one another in a pattern. May be done with or without mortar.
  45. Truss
    A structural framework of wood or metal based on a triangular system, used to reinforce or support wall/ceilings/beams
  46. List the three types of Ceramics/clay and firing temperature
    • Earthenware 700-1200C
    • Stoneware 1200-1350C
    • Porcelain 1350-1450C
  47. Why do artist make prints?
    • To create multiple images
    • Social causes
    • Because we like to
  48. List the 4 categories of Printmaking
    • 1) Relief
    • 2) Intaglio
    • 3) Etching & Engraving
    • 4) Stenciling & silkscreen
  49. What is a Matrix?
    Wood, Stone, Metal, Plastic (what is inked)
  50. List items made out of ceramics
    pots, bowls, plates, statues, vases, ashtrays
  51. List 2 kinds of Relief printmaking (raised surface inked)
    • Linocut
    • woodcuts
  52. List 2 kinds of Intaglio printmaking (below surface inked)
    • Etching
    • engraving