ANSC 375 #2

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ARM
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ANSC 375 #2
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2013-04-21 14:48:44
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Some ANSC 375 Questions from the last lectures
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  1. OIE List A versus List B diseases
    • LIST A
    • transmissible: serious and rapid
    • not contained within country borders
    • socio-economic/ public health threat
    • Impact on international trade
    • Ex: FMD, rinderpest, swine fever
    • LIST B
    • Transmissible: not necessarily rapid
    • can be contained within national borders
    • socio-economic/ public health threat
    • impact on international trade
    • EX anthrax, rabies, bovine TB
  2. What kind of virus is LSD and what is that viruses characteristic?
    • Poxvirus
    • attach each individual dermal or lymph cell resulting in cell-cell spread of infection
  3. LSD
    • #1 symptom = fever
    • -rhinitis, conjunctivitis, excessive salvation
    • *because it looks like other diseases (pseudo lumpy skin disease {bovine herpes virus 2}, bovine popular stomatitis, pseudo cowpox, cow pox, rinderpest, insect bites, cutaneous TB) must confirm LSD by lab tests! ie PCR etc..
    • antivirals = most promising treatment
    • Major restriction factor: international trade markets ie import bans
    • List A
    • CFIA would "stamp out"
    • -Africa- looks like fly strike
  4. PCR
    • Pro: only need one copy of DNA
    • Con: cant tell if dead or alive
  5. define "stamping out"
    • **eliminate the disease and re-establish disease free status
    • cull all infected/ exposed animals
    • surveillance of at risk animals
    • control cattle movement
    • quarantine cattle inidividuals/ herds
    • strip and decontaminate facilities that had the disease
  6. BTD
    • Non-contagious
    • viral disease affecting ruminants
    • transmission by midges
    • Animals mount antibody response
    • Harbour virus for a long time: because it stays undetected as it hides in immune cells
    • reoviridae
    • each virion: inner and outer layers, 7 structural proteins
    • Ingested into midge, deposited in mid gut for digestion, attach to luminal surface of gut cells and replicate, enters salivary glands and replicates, enters salivary ducts (ready to transmit)
    • New host bitten and disease is transferred to skin, host dendritic cells pick up disease and transfer to lymph nodes, replicates (initial site = lymph nodes of rumen), released into circulatory system, travels to susceptible organs while replicating in the blood stream
    • BTV initially infects lymphocytes, macrophages, and vascular epithelium, where it replicates causing apoptosis and necrosis.
    • vascular permeability/cell death = inflammatory response and increased cell damage and vascular occlusion and edema
    • Sheep = primary host
    • primary symptom = edema
    • BTV can not survive in environment
    • it is an RNA polymerase virus which is affected by temp - determines time for ingested virus to spread through midges gut to salivary glands
    • can develop immunity
    • cattle= reservoirs
    • No specific therapy- only treat symptoms
    • vaccines- most common = multivalent attenuated
    • CN- BTV free except Okanogan valley
    • OIE- list A immediately notifiable disease
  7. PRV
    • PSEUDORABIES VIRUS
    • *Highly infectious respiratory and neurological disease
    • (not rabies virus) Type 1 herpes porcine virus (suid herpesvirus 1)
    • Piglets = CNS symptoms + 100% mortality
    • Influenza like symptoms increase with age
    • adults = resp to no symptoms
    • mortality and morbidity decrease with age
    • Multi-species = 100% mortality
    • Cattle = mad itch
    • direct contact
    • easily inactivated
    • can release nucleocapsid into host cell by attaching to the host cell via a glycosylated protein. Next takes over host cell machinery, then releases completed virions which attack other cells
    • lifelong infection
    • no specific treatment
    • no CN approved vaccine
    • "stamping out" policy
    • List B
    • Possible routes of transmission into Canada: 1) USA wild hog populations 2) import of infected animals
    • why is should be class A)  multi species with 100% mortality, prolonged latency period with asymptomatic signs and during this time trade across borders may occur
  8. Bioterrorism: diseases used
    • Anthrax
    • Plague
    • Small Pox
    • Botulism
    • Viral Hemorrhagic fevers
  9. What are the 4 viral hemorrhagic fevers?
    Margburg (has been weaponised), abolla, lassa fever, yellow fever
  10. Which of the bioterrorist diseases is most lethal to man kind?
    Botulism: difficult to treat because need to respirate everyone. paralysis of respiratory system
  11. OIE Mission objectives
    • •1) Transparency: Ensure transparency in the global animal disease situation
    • •2) Scientific information: Collect, analyse and disseminate veterinary scientific information
    • •3) International solidarity: Encourage international solidarity in the control of animal diseases
    • •4) Sanitary safety: Safeguard world trade by publishing health standards for international trade in animals and animal products
    • •5) Promotion of veterinary services: Improve the legal framework and resources of national Veterinary Services
    • •6) Food safety and animal welfare: To provide a better guarantee of food of animal origin and to promote animal welfare through a science-based approach
  12. CFIA
    • •Dedicated to safeguarding food, animals and plants, which enhances the health and well-being of Canada's people, environment and economy
    • •Acts:  The Agency is responsible for the administration and enforcement of the Agriculture and Agri-Food Administrative Monetary Penalties Act, Canada Agricultural Products Act, Feeds Act, Fertilizers Act, Fish Inspection Act, Health of Animals Act, Meat Inspection Act, Plant Breeders’ Rights Act, Plant Protection Act and Seeds Act
    • Also in the context of food: Consumer labelling and Packing Act, Food and Drugs Act
  13. PHAC: Public Health Agency of Canada
    • •Mission: To promote and protect the health of Canadians through leadership, partnership, innovation and action in public health
    • •Mandate:
    • •Promote health;
    • •Prevent and control chronic diseases and injuries;
    • •Prevent and control infectious diseases;
    • •Prepare for and respond to public health emergencies;
    • •Serve as a central point for sharing Canada’s expertise with the rest of the world;
    • •Apply international research and development to Canada’s public health programs; and
    • •Strengthen intergovernmental collaboration on public health and facilitate national approaches to public health policy and planning
  14. Provincial bodies
    • •Ministry: Agriculture and Rural Development.
    • •Food Safety and Animal Health Division:
    • • Office of the Chief Provincial Veterinarian (OCPV):
    • •The OCPV advocates the use of current scientific principles and information in the development of animal health legislation and disease control programs. The OCPV liaises with international, federal and other provincial governments, as well as industry on food animal health issues
    • •Alberta Health and Wellness
    • •Alberta Health Act (Health Charter): guide the actions of regional; health authorities, provincial health boards, operators, health providers, professional colleges, Albertans, and any other persons specified in the regulations
  15. OCPV
    • Office of the Chief Provincial Veterinarian
    • •Prepare for animal health emergencies in the event that a foreign animal disease is diagnosed in Alberta
    • •Represent the provincial government on various national and international animal health committees
    • •Maintain the Livestock Diseases Act and its regulations
    • •Lead the development and implementation of provincial animal disease control programs, such as Infectious Laryngotracheitis (ILT) in poultry and West Nile Virus in horses
    • •Liaise with Alberta Health and Wellness on issues where animal diseases may impact human health
    • •Report animal disease status to Albertans
  16. 3 CFIA classifications of diease
    reportable, immediately notifiable, annually notifiable
  17. Reportable disease
    • Significant importance to health or economy
    • •      Required to IMMEDIATELY report to CFIA district veterinarian.
    • •      Immediate control/eradication
    • •      Ex) Anthrax, Anaplasmosis, Chronic Wasting Disease, Foot and Mouth Disease, Rinderpest, Scrapie, Rabies
  18. Immediately notifiable
    • •      EXOTIC to Canada
    • •      No control/eradication program
    • •      Only LABORATORIES are required to contact the CFIAEx) West Nile Virus,  Glanders,  Fowl cholera
  19. Annually Notifiable Diseases
    • Canada MUST submit ANNUAL report to World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)Present in Canada,
    • but not categorized in either reportable or immediately notifiable.
    • Ex) Botulism, Haemorrhagic septicemia, Q fever, Salmonella abortus (ovis, equi)
  20. Biosecurity
    A planned system to prevent into or transmission of communicable diseases by cross contamination within a herd, flock, or population
  21. Physical elements of biosecurity vs operational elements
    • Physical: fences, disinfectants, showers, clothing changes, boot dips, cleaning equipment
    • Operational: who, where, how, when
  22. ***WHat are the 3 major components of biosecurity?
    • Isolation
    • traffic control
    • sanitation
  23. Define: Hygiene
    a science of the estb and maintenance of health; conditions or practices (cleanliness) conductive to health
  24. Define Sanitation
    the promotion of hygiene and prevention of disease by maintenance of clean conditions, especially via the disposal of waste (manure, bedding etc)
  25. Define disinfection
    to free an object from infectious organisms
  26. Define disinfectant
    • not meant for live tissue
    • chemical that destroys vegetative forms of harmful microorganisms, especially on inanimate objects that may be less effective to destroy bacterial spores
  27. Define anitseptic
    a chemical germicide formulated to use on skin and tissue
  28. sterilization vs disinfection
    • sterilize: kill everything
    • disinfet: free it from most things
  29. "static or stasis" vs "cidal" in control mechanisms
    • static - inhibit reproduction and growth
    • cidal- kills microorganisms
  30. Exposure vs Infection : 3 determinants
    • Exposure doesn't always mean infection
    • depends on:
    • Dose (# of bacteria that challenge animals)
    • Pathogenicity (ability for organism to reach animal, invade, and infect to cause disease)
    • Immune status (animals ability to fight of disease organism)
  31. Enviro factors that deterimine the length of time a pathogen will be a threat
    • drying forces
    • level of organic matter
    • radiation
    • oxidation
    • pH
    • temp
    • control of vectors
  32. Methods of microbial control
    Physical and chemical
  33. Physical methods of microbial control
    • heat: autoclaving, boiling, pasteurization
    • radiation; ionizing and UV
    • Filtration: HEPA for air, fluid filters
    • Dessication: drying, osmotic pressure (salt or sugat)
  34. Chemical methods of microbial control
    • disinfectants
    • acid washes
    • detergents
    • antiseptics
    • sanitizers
    • *effect is determined by: optimal concentrations, contact time between microorganism and chem, temp, absence of interference materials
  35. Detergents/ soap
    • ***USE FIRST
    • wetting agents/ emulsifiers
    • some effective against; bacteria, fungi, protozoa and virus
    • oral ingestion is often poisonous
    • may irritate sin
    • principle is to remove organic matter
  36. **Classes of disinfectants
    • Phenols: Dettol, pine oil
    • Halogens: betadine, chlorine bleach
    • Quaternary ammonium compounds: good
    • oxidizing agents, acids, alakines: ie peroxide
    • aldehydies
  37. Chemical: sanitizers
    reduces # of organisms to a safe levels as determined by public health officials
  38. Principles for disinfection
    correct product, select based on properties of pathogen present, correct dilution, avoid mixing with others, avoid organic materials, contact time, caution: toxic to enviro etc...
  39. STEPS for disinfection of Animal facilities and equipment
    EXAM Q
    • 1. Remove equipment (cover electrical)
    • 2. Clean pens and equipment: remove organic water and detergent)
    • 3. Disinfect (specific products chosen based on kill spectrum needed)
    • 4. Dry (air, heat)
    • 5. Monitor (quality control / testing) - ie culture
    • 6. Deal with other invasive threats (ie pest)
  40. Point of washing barn
    • REDUCE DOSE of pathogen
    • removes bacteria, viruses, parasites
    • animals growth better/ healthier
  41. Define Quarantine
    refers to the confinement or isolation of animals which may be carrying an infectious disease, usually for a specific time period, allow for testing and or recovery form disease
  42. Reasons/purposes for Quarantine
    • 1. intro of animals of unknown or different health statuses. Important for international borders. *** intro into new flock/herd/premisis
    • 2. Diseases outbreaks- suspected exposures. to allow recovery of infected animals without spread
  43. Principles of Quarantine
    • 1. Strict Biosecurity/ containment
    • -all elements of biosecurity apply
    • -no new pathogens in or out
    • 2. Observation and testing
    • -use of sentinel animals (expose to testing)
    • -serology (blood testing for antibodies)
    • -direct testing of pathogens: PCR of feces or other discharges
    • 3. Introduction of herd/flock or release from quarantine when safe
    • -"safe" means epidemiology modeling for sample size based on sensitivity, specificity of test
  44. Bo
  45. Bovine Anaplasmosis
    • biological: transtadiol or intrastidiol
    • iatrogenic
    • replicates in RBC- which is then lysed and phagocytised by reticuloendothelial cells
    • persistent infection using immune evasion techniques including:
    • -antigenic variation of major surface proteins
    • - suppression of immune and adaptive responses
    • -manipulation of host neutrophils
    • -functional exhaustion of T cell
    • -secretion of virulence factors
    • no treatment for persistently infected cattle
    • gram -
    • progressive anemia
    • carrier for life
  46. Components of foreign animal disease planning
    Detection, Investigation, control, eradication, prevention
  47. Detection (surveillance)
    • 2 components: passive and active
    • Passive: detection through voluntary non-targeted submissions, broad scope (good for finding new diseases), many species and locations, ** can ID newly emerging diseases. Not very successful in determining prevalence!
    • Acitve: detection through targeted surveys of specific species, farm types, ages etcc... for specific diseases** Only find what looking for, targeted and specific, few species, diseases and locations. Not very useful for ID newly emerging diseases. Useful for determining prevalence of important diseases
  48. Investigation
    • Investigate once new outbreaks ID
    • on-site epidemiological investigation
    • especially important for new and unusual disease symptoms
    • how early BSE  was detected
    • W5: where did it come from? go? spread?
  49. Control and/or eradication
    • most officially reportable diseases are not treateable
    • others may be but result in + tester in recovered animals
    • when - test status is required then eradication is necessary
    • rational approach for diseases like BTB: long incubation, silent shedding, minimal clinical signs, live tests
  50. Disease Prevention (recovery)
    • More tools available especially if dealing with less infectious slow growing diseases
    • Goals; prevent further transmission to other animals in the herd, region, or country
    • combination of: movement controls, physical separation, vaccination
    • import/testing and regulations
    • feedbans
    • vaccinate for some (rabies)
    • ongoing surveillance, detection and control activities
  51. Pros and cons of vaccinations
    • upside: prevent them from becoming infectious and contagious and long term immunitu so we can still slaughter them
    • downside: create +'s so globally wont trade
  52. Vaccination ring circle
    • Inner: Infected and slaughter
    • 3Km radius: quarantine test and slaughter + associates
    • 10Km radius: restricted movement and active surveillance (testing)
    • >10km radius: normal practices with surveillance
  53. Welfare slaughter
    • because of restricted movement and inability to feed
    • healthy animals
    • have to keep for extra time but worth less and costing
  54. Stamping out why?
    • 1) maintain disease free status with trading countires (trade embargos expensive)
    • 2) immediate slaughter: prevent pathogen amplification and geographical spread of disease by moving animals
  55. Full "stamping out" program
    • early detection of disease
    • rapid killing of all known animals
    • tracing all known contacts
    • herd quarantine
    • testing risk populations
    • premptive and welfare slaughter
    • possible vaccination
  56. concerns with the stamping out policy
    • 1) waste of food in face of global hunger
    • 2) animal sufferin on the farm due to conidition sthat develop secondary to animal restictions (ie crowding)
    • 3) extremem hardships to producers (compensation not suff)
    • 4) enviro costs to carcass disposal
    • 5) the act itself- the aversion to mass killing of animals
    • 6) callenges associated with humanely killing large #s of aninals
  57. Costs of stamping out
    • Direct: personnel, compensation, carcass disposal
    • Indirect: losses incurred to inidiv or industry (ie down time of markets etc)
  58. WELFARE SLAUGHTER
    • destruction of animals not infected by a pathogen
    • destroyed because of: overcrowding, deteriorating conditions on the farm under movement restrictions
    • animal cant be exploited of consumed and must be rendered or exposed of
    • expensive costs: OIE est. 10x the cost the cost of eradicating the disease on the farm
    • OVERCROWDING issues: delayed culling, utility costs, feed
  59. Classical Swine Fever (hog cholera)
    • Endemic: western Europ, East, S america
    • reportable in CN
    • Pestivirus (related to BVD)
    • spreads in body fluids, esp urine,
    • flies, vehicles, ppl
  60. Issues with Euthanasia
    • needs to be done in a timely manner: requires many highly trained personnel
    • time P
    • lack of skilled ppl
    • inability to muster and restrain animals
    • vet must be present
    • DISPOSAL OF DEAD: not feasible to submit those that should to pathology testing, SRM requirments to follow, removal and proper disposal needed (buried on farm, class 1 or class 2 landfill, burned or incinerated, composted, rendered, disposed of "naturally" (unless diseased))
    • slaughter facilities cant keep up oace
    • carcass destruction needs to properly inactivate the pathogen
    • competition for resources between surveillance and alguther
  61. Canadian Veterinary Reserve
    • A progam that aims to provide CN with:
    • -the surge capacity, expertise and rapid response
    • -capability required to continue to respond to domestic incidence
    • -provide assistance to other countries during international disease control efforst
    • -annual training exercises to prepare for possible disease outbreak

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