[PHARMACOGNOSY] Glycosides

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[PHARMACOGNOSY] Glycosides
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2013-04-21 08:18:29
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  1. compounds that yield one or more sugar among the product of hydrolysis
    glycoside
  2. example of glycones
    • D-glucosse
    • Rhamnose
    • Digitoxose
    • m-cymarose
  3. Example of aglycones
    • O-glycoside
    • S-glycoside
    • N-glycoside
    • C-glycoside
  4. classification of glycosides
    • cardiac glycosides
    • anthraquinone glycosides
    • saponin glycosides
    • cyanogenic glycoside
    • isothiocyanates glycoside
    • alcohol glycoside
    • aldehydes glycosides
    • phenolilc glycosides
    • flavonoids
    • lactone glycosides
  5. glycoside with steroidal in character with cyclopentanoperhydrohydrophenanthrene nucleus
    cardiac glycosides
  6. 2 steroidal aglycones
    • cardenolides
    • bufadienolides
  7. difference between cardenolides and bufadienolides
    • cardenolides
    • c23 steroid 5 member lactone
    • budadienolides
    • c24 steroid 6 member lactone
  8. test fo 2 deoxy sugar
    keller killiani
  9. positive result for keller killiani test
    red brown --> blue to purple
  10. test for steroid
    lieberman burchard
  11. positive result for lieberman burchard
    blue, green, pink purple or VIOLET
  12. test for lactone unsaturated
    kedde test
  13. positive result for kedde test
    purple
  14. K depletion decreases susceptibility to cardiac glycoside toxicity. true or false
    false
  15. K depleting drugs
    • thiamine
    • diuretics
    • corticosteroid with mineralocorticoids
  16. parenteral Ca plus cardiac glycoside results to hypocalcemia. true or false
    false
  17. known as lily of the valley
    convallaria
  18. known as chrismas rose
    black hellebore
  19. Urginea maritime
    Squil
  20. use of scillaren A
    • expectorant
    • emetic
    • cardiotonic
    • diuretic
  21. example of cardiac glycosides
    • digitalis
    • convallaria
    • apocynum
    • black hellebore
    • strophantus
    • squil
    • oleander
  22. it exert action by increase tone of smooth muscle in wall of colon and stimulate secretion of water and electrolyte in large intestine
    stimulant cathartic
  23. problem occurs in stimulant laxative
    • habit forming
    • loss of normal bowel function
  24. test for anthraquinone
    borntrager test
  25. positive result of borntrager test
    red coloration of lowe ammoniacal layer
  26. examples of anthraquinone glycosides
    • cascara sagrada
    • frangula
    • aloe
    • rhubarb
    • senna
  27. bitter taste and activity of cascara sagrada may be redued by treating with what substance?
    Magnesium Oxide
  28. cathartic used in the correction of habitual constipation
    cascara sagrada
  29. also known as buckthorn bark
    frangula
  30. Aloin A
    barbaloin
  31. aloin B
    isobarbaloin
  32. use of aloin A and aloin B
    • pharmaceutical aid for compund benzoin tincture
    • cathartic
  33. use of rhubarb
    cathartic
  34. sennidin A+B
    rhein dianthrone
  35. it forms collidal solution in water that foams upon shaking
    saponins
  36. poisonous saponins used for controlling schistosomiasis snails
    sapotoxins
  37. 2 types of sapogenin
    • steroidal
    • triterpenoidal
  38. defference between steroidal and triterpenoidal sapogenin
    • steroidal - monocot
    • triterpenoidal = dicot
  39. example of saponin
    • glycyrrizha
    • ginseng
  40. licorice root
    glycyrrizha
  41. 50x sweeter as sugar
    glycyrrhizha
  42. use of glycyrrhizha
    • demulcent
    • expectorant
    • promote K depletion
  43. glycyrrhizha which is used in dermatologic practice as anti inflammatory
    glyccyrhetic acid
  44. glycyrrhiza which is used in treatment of peptic ulcer and addison's disease
    licorice root extract
  45. Panax quinquefolius
    ginseng
  46. glycoside that yields hydrocyanic acid upon hydrolysis
    cyanogenic glycoside
  47. test for cyanogenic glycoside
    guignard test
  48. positive result of guignard test
    yellow to maroon
  49. example of cyanogenic glycoside
    • amygdalin
    • wild cherry
    • apricot
  50. cyanogenic glycoside which claimed to be anticancer and control sickle cell anemia 
    • amygdalin
    • laetrile or vitamin B17
  51. enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycoside of amygdalin to release HCN
    emulsin
  52. a glycoside in which upon hydrolysis by the enzyme myrosinase, it yields D-glucose and labile aglycone that cause loss of sulfate
    isothiocyanates glycosides
  53. use of isothiocyanates
    anticancer
  54. example of isothiocyanates
    • mustard
    • brocolli
    • garlic
  55. indole 3 carbinol
    mustard
  56. use of mustard
    reduce risk of estradiol linked mammary cancer
  57. 4 methyl sulfinyl isothicyanate
    brocolli
  58. use of brocolli
    induce anticarcinogenic protective enzyme
  59. diallyl thiosulfonate
    allicin
  60. use of allicin
    • potent antibacterial
    • hyperlipidemic
    • inhibit platelet aggregation
  61. use of e-ajoene and z ajoene
    antithrombotic
  62. use of salicin
    antirheumatism
  63. 2 substance that can be turned ito vanillin
    • coniferyl alcohol
    • isoeugenol
  64. example of alcohol glycoside
    salicin
  65. example of aldehyde glycoside
    vanilla
  66. example of phenolic glycoside
    • arbutin
    • hesperidin
    • phloridzin
    • rutin
  67. uva ursi
    bearberry
  68. source of arbutin
    uva ursi / bearberry
  69. use of arbutin
    • antiseptic
    • astringent
  70. phenolic plant pigment containing benzopyrone nucleus
    flavonoids
  71. 2 types of flavonoids
    • anthocyanin
    • leucoanthocyanin
  72. plant material with flavonoid boiled with 1% HCl and gives orange-red to blue to red
    anthicyanin
  73. plant material with flavonoid boiled with diluted acids and gives strong red or violet color
    leucoanthocyanin
  74. test for flavonoids
    • bate-smith and metcalf test
    • willstatter cyanidin test
  75. test for presence of leucocyanidin
    batesmith and metcalf test
  76. test for presence of benzopyrone nucleus
    willstatter cyanidin test
  77. example of lactone glycoside
    cantharidin
  78. glycoside from spanish flies
    cantharidin
  79. use of cantharidin
    vessicating agent

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