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What is memory?
A storage system that retains sensory information and knowledge when the stimuli which created it no longer exist in consciousness.
What is encoding?
Brain converting information into electro-chemical code that allows it to be stored in memory
What is storage?
Refers to retaining information in the brain so we can use it later on
What is retrieval?
- The process of getting info back from memory
- Relies of right cues
What is Atkinson-Shiffrin's theory of memory?
- The multi-store model
- Describes three distinct levels of memory and how they interact with each other.
Describe sensory memory and its functions
- It is the store for incoming, brief sensory info
- Most info is ignored but if not, goes to STM
- Acts as a filter- prevents us from being overwhelmed
- Rapid decay allows processing of new info
- Echoic: 3-4 sec
- Iconic: .3 sec
Describe short term memory (STM)
- A temporary working area that receives info from sensory memory and LTM. Info for everyday functions is manipulated
- Capacity: 5-9, duration: 12-30 seconds
- When full, pushes out old info
What is chunking information?
Combining smaller bits of info into larger single units ultimately increasing capacity of info in STM
What is maintenance rehearsal?
- Repeating info to increase chances of retaining it in STM
- Unless there is interference solves limited duration
- When it stops, info is lost in 12-30 seconds
- Transfer to LTM can occur if repeated enough
Describe long term memory
- The relatively permanent memory system that holds vast amounts of information for long periods of time.
- Unlimited capacity and relatively permanent duration
- Info is encoded by its meaning, stored in semantic networks
- Forgetting what goes into LTM is due to poor retrieval cues
What is elaborative rehearsal?
- Where we give meaning to new information by linking it to info already in LTM
- Salience: personally linking ourselves with the material being learnt
Evidence to support multi-store model of memory
- Serial position effect: during free recall items at the start and end of the list are remember better than those in the middle
- Primary effect: transferred to LTM
- Recency effect: items stored in STM
Criticisms of multi-store model
- Does not adequately explain the interaction between different memory stores
- Does not show why coding of memory changes between memory stores
What is the model of working memory?
- Baddeley and Hitch's Model
- A component of memory that refers to the mental work that occurs at any given time.
- Draws information from sensory memory and LTM
What are the 4 aspects of the model of working memory?
- Phonological loop: where verbal information is temporarily held
- Visuo-spatial sketchpad: Where visual and spatial information is temporarily held
- Episodic buffer: Helps retrieve info from LTM to associate with working memory and encode info into LTM
- Central Executive
What is central executive and the main functions?
- Integrates sounds and vision of working memory. Controls attention and enables mental manipulation on data
- Inhibition: Screening out irrelevant data
- Switching: Changing attention from one item to another
- Updating: modifying items brought in from LTM before recommitting them to LTM
Describe levels of processing by Craik and Lockhart
- Memory is a continuous dimension
- 3 levels: deeper processing= better retrieval
- Structural processing (shallow): Words learnt by remembering physical features
- Phonemic processing (moderate): Words learnt by sounds
- Semantic processing (deep): Words learnt by meaning. Allows to be placed directly to semantic network
What are procedural memories?
- Memories to do with actions, habits and skills that have been learnt previously. Involves how to do something
What are declarative memories?
- Memories of facts, events and general knowledge
- Episodic memory: events/ personal experiences.
- Retrospective memory= past events
- Prospective memory= things to do in the future
- Semantic memory: Memories of facts or knowledge
What are explicit and implicit memories?
- Explicit memory involves intentional remembering (declarative memory). Hippocampus
- Implicit memory involves unintentional remembering (procedural memory). Amygdala
What is the semantic network theory?
Proposes that the nodes of information in LTM are stored in a hierarchal structure with links between related nodes (the shorter the link, the closer the relationship)
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