Card Set Information
Psychology chp10 memory
Memory and the different theories
What is memory?
A storage system that
sensory information and knowledge when the stimuli which created it no longer exist in consciousness.
What is encoding?
information into electro-chemical code that allows it to be
What is storage?
information in the brain so we can use it later on
What is retrieval?
The process of getting info back from memory
Relies of right cues
What is Atkinson-Shiffrin's theory of memory?
Describes three distinct levels of memory and how they interact with each other.
Describe sensory memory and its functions
It is the store for incoming, brief sensory info
Most info is ignored but if not, goes to STM
Acts as a filter- prevents us from being overwhelmed
Rapid decay allows processing of new info
: 3-4 sec
: .3 sec
Describe short term memory (STM)
temporary working area
that receives info from sensory memory and LTM. Info for everyday functions is manipulated
: 5-9, duration: 12-30 seconds
When full, pushes out old info
What is chunking information?
Combining smaller bits of info into larger single units ultimately increasing capacity of info in STM
What is maintenance rehearsal?
Repeating info to increase chances of retaining it in STM
Unless there is interference solves limited duration
When it stops, info is lost in 12-30 seconds
Transfer to LTM can occur if repeated enough
Describe long term memory
The relatively permanent memory system that holds vast amounts of information for long periods of time.
Unlimited capacity and relatively permanent duration
Info is encoded by its meaning, stored in semantic networks
Forgetting what goes into LTM is due to poor retrieval cues
What is elaborative rehearsal?
Where we give meaning to new information by
it to info already in LTM
: personally linking ourselves with the material being learnt
Evidence to support multi-store model of memory
Serial position effect
: during free recall items at the start and end of the list are remember better than those in the middle
: transferred to LTM
: items stored in STM
Criticisms of multi-store model
Does not adequately explain the interaction between different memory stores
Does not show why coding of memory changes between memory stores
What is the model of working memory?
Baddeley and Hitch's Model
A component of memory that refers to the
at any given time
Draws information from sensory memory and LTM
What are the 4 aspects of the model of working memory?
: where verbal information is temporarily held
: Where visual and spatial information is temporarily held
: Helps retrieve info from LTM to associate with working memory and encode info into LTM
What is central executive and the main functions?
Integrates sounds and vision of working memory. Controls attention and enables mental manipulation on data
: Screening out irrelevant data
: Changing attention from one item to another
: modifying items brought in from LTM before recommitting them to LTM
Describe levels of processing by Craik and Lockhart
Memory is a continuous dimension
: deeper processing= better retrieval
Structural processing (shallow)
: Words learnt by remembering physical features
Phonemic processing (moderate)
: Words learnt by sounds
Semantic processing (deep)
: Words learnt by meaning. Allows to be placed directly to semantic network
What are procedural memories?
Memories to do with actions, habits and skills that have been learnt previously. Involves
how to do
What are declarative memories?
and general knowledge
: events/ personal experiences.
Retrospective memory= past events
Prospective memory= things to do in the future
: Memories of facts or knowledge
What are explicit and implicit memories?
remembering (declarative memory). Hippocampus
remembering (procedural memory). Amygdala
What is the semantic network theory?
Proposes that the nodes of information in LTM are stored in a hierarchal structure with links between related nodes (the shorter the link, the closer the relationship)