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  1. What is memory?
    A storage system that retains sensory information and knowledge when the stimuli which created it no longer exist in consciousness.
  2. What is encoding?
    Brain converting information into electro-chemical code that allows it to be stored in memory
  3. What is storage?
    Refers to retaining information in the brain so we can use it later on
  4. What is retrieval?
    • The process of getting info back from memory
    • Relies of right cues
  5. What is Atkinson-Shiffrin's theory of memory?
    • The multi-store model
    • Describes three distinct levels of memory and how they interact with each other.
  6. Describe sensory memory and its functions
    • It is the store for incoming, brief sensory info
    • Most info is ignored but if not, goes to STM
    • Acts as a filter- prevents us from being overwhelmed
    • Rapid decay allows processing of new info
    • Echoic: 3-4 sec
    • Iconic: .3 sec
  7. Describe short term memory (STM)
    • A temporary working area that receives info from sensory memory and LTM. Info for everyday functions is manipulated
    • Capacity: 5-9, duration: 12-30 seconds
    • When full, pushes out old info
  8. What is chunking information?
    Combining smaller bits of info into larger single units ultimately increasing capacity of info in STM
  9. What is maintenance rehearsal?
    • Repeating info to increase chances of retaining it in STM
    • Unless there is interference solves limited duration
    • When it stops, info is lost in 12-30 seconds
    • Transfer to LTM can occur if repeated enough
  10. Describe long term memory
    • The relatively permanent memory system that holds vast amounts of information for long periods of time.
    • Unlimited capacity and relatively permanent duration
    • Info is encoded by its meaning, stored in semantic networks
    • Forgetting what goes into LTM is due to poor retrieval cues
  11. What is elaborative rehearsal?
    • Where we give meaning to new information by linking it to info already in LTM
    • Salience: personally linking ourselves with the material being learnt
    • Mnemonics
  12. Evidence to support multi-store model of memory
    • Serial position effect: during free recall items at the start and end of the list are remember better than those in the middle
    • Primary effect: transferred to LTM
    • Recency effect: items stored in STM
  13. Criticisms of multi-store model
    • Does not adequately explain the¬†interaction¬†between different memory stores
    • Does not show why coding of memory changes between memory stores
  14. What is the model of working memory?
    • Baddeley and Hitch's Model
    • A component of memory that refers to the mental work that occurs at any given time.
    • Draws information from sensory memory and LTM
  15. What are the 4 aspects of the model of working memory?
    • Phonological loop: where verbal information is temporarily held
    • Visuo-spatial sketchpad: Where visual and spatial information is temporarily held
    • Episodic buffer: Helps retrieve info from LTM to associate with working memory and encode info into LTM
    • Central Executive
  16. What is central executive and the main functions?
    • Integrates sounds and vision of working memory. Controls attention and enables mental manipulation on data
    • Inhibition: Screening out irrelevant data
    • Switching: Changing attention from one item to another
    • Updating: modifying items brought in from LTM before¬†recommitting them to LTM
  17. Describe levels of processing by Craik and Lockhart
    • Memory is a continuous dimension
    • 3 levels: deeper processing= better retrieval
    • Structural processing (shallow): Words learnt by remembering physical features
    • Phonemic processing (moderate): Words learnt by sounds
    • Semantic processing (deep): Words learnt by meaning. Allows to be placed directly to semantic network
  18. What are procedural memories?
    • Memories to do with actions, habits and skills that have been learnt previously. Involves how to do something
    • Implicit
  19. What are declarative memories?
    • Memories of facts, events and general knowledge
    • Episodic memory: events/ personal experiences.
    • Retrospective memory= past events
    • Prospective memory= things to do in the future
    • Semantic memory: Memories of facts or knowledge
  20. What are explicit and implicit memories?
    • Explicit memory involves intentional remembering (declarative memory). Hippocampus
    • Implicit memory involves unintentional remembering (procedural memory). Amygdala
  21. What is the semantic network theory?
    Proposes that the nodes of information in LTM are stored in a hierarchal structure with links between related nodes (the shorter the link, the closer the relationship)
Card Set:
2013-04-27 14:51:00
Psychology chp10 memory

Memory and the different theories
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