pharmacology final

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vanessasoto
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214804
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pharmacology final
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2013-04-21 13:32:19
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pharmacology
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cards for the final
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  1. what do the drug names consist of
    • chemical name
    • nonproprietary/generic name
    • proprietary/trade name
  2. chemical name
    so the chemist can make the drug
  3. generic name
    expired patan
  4. trade name
    • name that they market
    • name company gave to the drug
  5. what is on a drug label
    • drug name
    • concentration of the drug
    • total quantity in that bottle
    • information wether its a controlled drug
    • expiration date
    • unique storage condition
  6. generic equivalents of drug
    • equivalent to the original compound
    • companys exclusive rights expired
    • sold at a lower price
    • typically just as effective
  7. dosage forms
    • tablets
    • sustained-release- light sensitive, foil pack
    • solution- evenly distrubuted
    • suspension-shake before use
    • ointments
    • lotion
    • injectables
    • ampules- 1 time use
  8. drug references
    • side effects
    • contraindications
    • warnings
    • indications
    • overdose
    • dosage
  9. what book do you look in for drug references
    veterinary drug handbook
  10. off label use
    using it on a species in which it was not approved for
  11. components of a prescription
    • drug name
    • route of administration
    • amout to be given (dosage)
    • how often the drug should be given(frequency)
    • how long the drug should be given(duration)
  12. SID
    ONCE A DAY
  13. BID
    TWICE A DAY
  14. TID
    3X A DAY
  15. QID
    4X A DAY
  16. q4h
    every 4 hours
  17. q8h
    every 8 hours
  18. qd
    every day
  19. QOD
    every other day
  20. PRN
    as needed
  21. IM
    intra muscular
  22. IV
    intravenous
  23. SQ or SC
    subcutaneous
  24. PO
    by mouth
  25. OD
    right eye
  26. OS
    left eye
  27. OU
    both eyes
  28. STAT
    immediately
  29. AD
    right ear
  30. AS
    left ear
  31. AU
    both ears
  32. % solution
    ex) 10% solution=
    • move the decimal to the right
    • 100 mg/ml
  33. controlled substance
    • portential for addiction
    • required log
    • classes (CI-CV)
    • DEA certification number
  34. controlled substances examples
    • morphine
    • butorphanol
    • fentanyl
    • ketamine
    • telazol
    • hydromorphone
  35. efficacy
    how effective or well the drug is
  36. agoinst
    pormotes a respone by binding to a receptor
  37. antagonist
    binds the a receptor and prevents a respond or blocks another drug
  38. therapeutic index
    LD 50/ ED 50
  39. first pass effect
    referes to how much of the drug is taken out by the liver to go to the body
  40. most drugs and metabolized by______ and excreted by the ______
    liver;kidney
  41. cats and drugs
    • slower drug elimination
    • lethal side effects
    • cats can't metabolize drugs as fast as cats
    • famous for blood clots
  42. newborn and drugs
    • less than 6 weeks old
    • non-mature liver
    • blood brain barrier
    • review package inserts
  43. penicillins
    • broad spectrum antibiotic gram +/-
    • interferes with cell wall
    • may cause allergic reations
    • use caution in exotics
  44. what is the suffix for penicillins
    • -cillin
    • ex)amoxicillin and ampicillin
  45. beta lactons
    • cephalosporins
    • penicellins
  46. beta lactamoase I
    resistance to penicillin
  47. beta lactamase II
    resistance to cephalosporins
  48. what is the prefix for cephalosporin
    • ceph- or cef-
    • ex) cephalexin, cefatabs, cefazolin
  49. cephalosporin
    • generation 1,2,3
    • inhibits synthesis of cell walls
    • big family of antibiotics
    • gram+ and anarobic
  50. bacitracins
    • common ingredient in topical antibiotic cream
    • drug does not get absorbed well by the body
    • toxin to the kidney
  51. aminoglycosides suffix
    • -micin or mycin
    • ex) gentamicin, amikacin, neomycin, streptomycin
  52. aminoglycosides
    • affects bacterias ribosomal preduction of proteins
    • potentally nephrotoxic and ototoxic
    • used against gram-
  53. examples of quinolones
    enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin
  54. quinolones
    • interferes with DNA function of bacteria
    • can disrupt developing joint cartilage-careful with growning animals
    • broad spectrum gram +/-
    • oral and injectable
  55. tetracyclines suffix
    • -cycline
    • ex) doxycycline and tetracycline
  56. tetracyclines
    • disrupts RNA structure
    • use with caution while teeth are growing
    • use in heartworm positive dogs kennel cough
  57. sulfonamides
    • sulfa drugs
    • ex) silfamethoxine and sulfadiasine
    • distrupts folic acid synthesis
    • can cause dry eye (KCS) crystal in the urin and allerigic reactions
    • board spectrum gram +/-
    • used for porstatic disease
  58. lincosamide
    • ex)lincomycin and clindamycin aka antirobe
    • bacterial protein inhibitors
    • used for bone and dental infections
  59. macrolides
    • ex)erythromycin and tylosin
    • caution with use in adult horses and ruminants
    • used in foals for rhosococcus equine
  60. metronidazole
    • flagyl
    • also effective against protozoa such as giardia
    • used for non specific diarrhea
  61. what are the side effects for metronidazole
    neurologic side effects
  62. chlormaphenicol
    • can cause myelosuppression
    • caution when handling
    • prohibited in food animals
  63. rifampin
    • used with erytthromycin for treatment of rhodococcus equine in foal
    • causes a reddish color to urine tears sweat and saliva
  64. suffix for antifungals
    -zole
  65. antifungals
    • amphotericin B
    • nystatin
    • ketoconazole
    • itreaconazole
    • griseofulivin
  66. antitussives
    • blocks the cough reflex
    • should be used with a dry nonproductive cough
  67. antitussive dugs
    • butorphanol
    • hydrocodone
    • codeine
  68. butorphanol
    • ex) torbutol
    • synthetic opioid cough suppressant
    • partial agonist
    • centrally acting
  69. what does buterphanol treat
    • relief of non productive cough in dogs
    • analgesia and preanestheia in dogs and cats
  70. what is the side effect in buterphanol
    sedation and atoxia
  71. is buterphanol considered a controlled drug
    yes class IV
  72. what is the dosage form for buterphanol
    injectable and tablet but dont use tablet
  73. hydrocodone
    • ex)hycodan, tissigan, bitarteate
    • schedule III opioid agonist
  74. what does hydrocodone treat
    harsh nonproductive cough in cats
  75. what is the side effect for hydrocodone
    potential sedation, constipation and gastrointestinal upset
  76. what is the dosage form for hydrocodone
    human label combination product in syrup or tablets
  77. codeine
    • sames as hydrocodone
    • schedule V opiate
    • not used
    • a component of many cough suppressants
  78. dextromethorphan
    • ex) predozon
    • common ingretient in OTC non prescription cough medicine
    • non narcotic centrally acting
  79. what does dextromethorphan treat
    suppress a non productive cough
  80. what is the side effect for dextromethorphan
    rare if given correct but drowsiness and gastrointestinal upset
  81. mucolytics
    • reduce the thickness of mucus
    • acetylcysteine
    • administered by nebutlization
  82. expectorants
    • increase fluidity of mucus
    • guaifenesin found in robistussin
    • used inĀ  productive cough
    • thin down mucus
  83. decongestants
    • phenylephrine
    • reduce congestion
  84. bronchodilators
    • stilmulates beta 2 receptors
    • allows bronchial smooth muscle to relax
  85. beta 1
    • in the heart
    • stimulates beta 1
    • increases heart rate and contractivity
  86. beta 2
    • in the airway
    • stimulates beta 2
    • causes bronchidilation
    • opens up the bronchi
  87. bronchodilator drugs
    • beta- adrenergic agonist
    • methylxantines
  88. beta adrenergic agonist
    • ex)terbutaline and albuterol
    • combats congestion
  89. what does beta adrenergic agonist treat
    beta 2 specific bronchodilators
  90. what is the side effect for beta adrenergic agonist
    tachycardia and hypertension
  91. methylxanthines
    • ex)aminophylline and theophylline
    • opens up the airway to help breath can cause excitment
  92. what does methylxanthine treat
    bronchodilators in respiratory and cardiac conditions for mild heart stimulation
  93. what is the side effect for methylxanthines
    CNS stimulations and GI upset
  94. respiratory stimulant
    • ex) doxapram, naloxon, yobine
    • CNS stimulant
    • can be administered under the tongue
  95. what is the side effect fro respiratory stimulant
    hypertension arrhythmia hyperventilation CNS excitation seizures

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