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how do benzimidazoles work?
bind to tubulin on parasite - they starve
which drug has widest safety margin and can be given extralabelly up to 10x dose to treat hypobiosis?
Which benzimidazole is teratogenic?
When during gestation can it be given?
Ok during 1st and 2nd trimester (not during 3rd)
which benzimidazole should not be given at same time as drugs for flukes?
which parasiticide has narrowest margin of safety?
Used to Tx...?
What class of drug is it?
treats adults and larval stages
Cholinergic inhibitor (blocks acetylecholine causing worm paralysis)
what are other examplse of cholinergic inhibitors?
What stages can these treat?
what is MOA for macrocyclic lactones?
enhances GABA in worms - paralysis
what stages will avermectins treat?
What will it NOT treat?
- Does NOT tx
- (minimal effect on nematodirus
with mass treatment strategies, which groups are usually dewormed? 5
- Before parturition
- Young, 1-3mos old
- F's pre-breeding
- Specific risk (bots after 1st freeze)
- Pasture Rotation
In most herds 80% of parasites are concentrated in what percent of the animals?
20% have most of the burden and show signs
What is FAMACHA?
What does it evaluate
What parasite does it screen for?
Who is Tx?
- MM compared to color scale
- Evaluates for anemia
- Tx most affected (1 best/5 is palest)
FAMACHA needs to be checked every 2 weeks in affected herds.
Why is this still a beneficial system even though labor costs are higher?
- Less dewormer- Save $
- Reduced production loss from disease
What egg count is consistent with Tx for goats?
What is a successful fecal egg count reduction test?
- Samples from ~10 animals =
- 90% reduction w/in 1 wk of Tx
if reduction is not at least 90% what can you do to improve it? 4
- Fast animals before Benzimidazoles
- Drench 2-3x Benzimidazole
- Tx then reTx w/different class (in a few days or same time)
- Improve pasture management
should you dose based on heaviest or leanest animal in the same age group?
Dose each age group based on HEAVIEST in the group - do not underdose
should you recommend staying with same dewormer or changing each year?
rotating each year if possible
based on grazing behavior, which species is at highest risk of L3 ingestion?
- Sheep - graze close to ground
- Cattle - intermediate
- Goats - browsers/least at risk as long as tall plants available
what effect does south american camelid species' defecation behavior have on their pasasite risk?
Communal dung pile= less risk as long as adequate pasture space
how does grazing behavior relate to strength of immunity?
Who build better immunity?
Sheep and Cattle= better immunity as adults since graze closer to ground-more in contact w/parasites
Goats/Camelids do not dev'l as good of immunity
what are the 4 cornerstones of management of GI parasitism?
- ⇩Infective larvae #
- ⇩Stocking rate
- Feed separate from feces
- Judicious use of anthelmintics