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- 3 broad classifications of chemical signals:
- local regulators
Chemical signals that function between animals of the same species. Small molecules, volatile, easily dispersed, active in minute amounts. Classified according to function, e.g., mate attractant, territorial marker, alarm substance.
- Synaptic Signaling – Neurotransmitters (neighboring cells)
- Paracrine Signaling, -Growth factors, Prostaglandins, histamine
- - One cell can release a cell that affects its neighbors
the study of hormones
Endocrine system has three components
- endocrine glands
- target cells with receptors
Specific molecules synthesized and secreted by a group of specialized cells, released into body fluids to travel to target cells where they elicit specific biological responses.
2) Endocrine glands = Ductless glands that secrete hormones into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body.
__ hormone actions are important in __, and involve __.
- maintaining homeostasis
- feedback mechanisms
- insulin vs. glucagon
__ = Protein on or in the __ that binds a __and determines the __ and __ of the hormone.
- Hormone Receptors
- target cell
- specificity and action
Hormone and receptor are __.
Where are hormone receptors located?
lLocated on target cell; not every tissue is affected
Contrast endocrine and exocrine glands?
Exocrine glands = Glands that convey their products by means of ducts.- Exocrine glands are not part of endocrine system; however, some organs are both exocrine and endocrine.