Patho II Exam 4

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Patho II Exam 4
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Patho II Exam 4
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  1. ductless glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
    endocrine glands
  2. the master gland
    pituitary gland
  3. found under the circle of willis
    pituitary gland
  4. composed of two parts:

    1. Anterior
    2. Posterior
    pituitary gland
  5. controls skeletal growth, the thyroid and adrenal glands, and sexual development
    Anterior pituitary gland
  6. controls smooth muscle contraction, as in birth and peristalsis
    Posterior pituitary gland
  7. the adenohypophysis
    Anterior pituitary
  8. one of the secretions is somatotropin or the human growth hormone (HGH)
    Anterior pituitary
  9. stimulates the growth of bone & soft tissue
    • somatotropin
    • HGH
  10. problems with the secretion of somatotropin (HGH) will possibly lead to one of the following:
    • 1. Giantism/Gigantism
    • 2. Acromegaly
    • 3. Dwarfism
    • 4. Adult onset Hypopituinarism
  11. the result of a condition of hyperpituitarism during childhood (2)
    • 1. Giantism/Gigantism
    • 2. Acromegaly
  12. a hypersecretion of somatotropin occurs while a child is still actively growing
    Giantism/Gigantism
  13. leads to the growth of a child into a giant or abnormally tall person
    Giantism/Gigantism
  14. usually sexually impotent & frequently die of diabetes
    Giantism/Gigantism
  15. a hypersecretion of somatotropin after bones have solidified and can no longer grow
    Acromegaly
  16. characterized by enlargement of the bones and soft tissues of the hands, feet, and head

    especially the frontal bone, jaws, nose lips, and ears
    Acromegaly
  17. "Lion face" appearance
    Acromegaly
  18. will eventually lead to sexual impotence, drowsiness, and possibly obesity
    Acromegaly
  19. typically caused by the growth of an adenoma (2)
    • 1. Giantism/Gigantism
    • 2. Acromegaly
  20. the result of hypopituitarism during early life
    Dwarfism
  21. a hyposecretion of somatotropin from the adenohypophysis
    Dwarfism
  22. person remains quite small and never develops any secondary sex characteristics
    Dwarfism
  23. a hyposecretion of somatotropin in adulthood
    Adult onset hypopituinarism
  24. leads to mental dullness and lethargy in adults
    Adult onset hypopituinarism
  25. gland responsible for Diabetes insipidus
    Posterior pituitary
  26. the result of hypofunction of the posterior lobe of the pituitary
    Diabetes insipidus
  27. a hyposecretion of the antidiuretic hormone occurs
    Diabetes insipidus
  28. leads to the passing of large quantities of urine (polyuria)
    Diabetes insipidus
  29. polyuria accompanies excessive thirst (polydipsia)
    Diabetes insipidus
  30. found to be idiopathic in half of the cases
    Diabetes insipidus
  31. trauma to the head or a tumor in that area causes the remainder of cases
    Diabetes insipidus
  32. pituitary cachexia
    • Simmond's disease
    • (affected by the entire pituitary)
  33. a condition in which there is complete atrophy of the pituitary gland
    • Simmond's disease
    • (affected by the entire pituitary)
  34. leads to a loss of function of the thyroid, adrenal and gonad glands
    • pituitary cachexia
    • Simmond's disease
    • (affected by the entire pituitary)
  35. necrosis of the gland
    • pituitary cachexia
    • Simmond's disease
    • (affected by the entire pituitary)
  36. Simmond's disease characterized by the following:
    • 1. considerable weight loss
    • 2. atrophy of internal organs
    • 3. loss of sexual function
    • 4. premature aging
    •     a. mental changes
    •     b. loss of hair & teeth
  37. consists of two lateral lobes
    thyroid gland
  38. found in the neck on either side of the windpipe
    thyroid gland
  39. secretes the hormone thyroxin
    thyroid gland
  40. regulates general body metabolism
    thyroxin
  41. influences body growth and development
    thyroxin
  42. exerts an influence over the nervous system
    thyroxin
  43. enlargement of the thyroid gland
    Goiter
  44. can be due to lack of iodine in diet, inflammation from infection, tumors, hyper or hyposecretion of thyroxin
    Goiter
  45. caused by a lack of iodine in the diet
    hypothyroidism
  46. the gland enlarges in an effort to compensate and secrete more thyroxin
    • endemic goiter
    • hypothyroidism
  47. enlargement of the thyroid gland in an effort to compensate and secrete more thyroxin
    endemic goiter
  48. the condition resulting from congenital hypofunction of the thyroid gland
    Cretinism
  49. Cretinism is characterized by a lack of physical and mental development(4)
    • 1. Dwarfism
    • 2. Slow bone development
    • 3. Low body temperature
    • 4. Retarded mental acuity
  50. the condition resulting from hypofunction of the thyroid gland in adulthood
    myxedema
  51. myxedema characterized by: (6)
    • 1. weight gain
    • 2. mental dullness
    • 3. general sluggishness
    • 4. thickening of the tongue and lips
    • 5. decreasing body temperature & metabolism
    • 6. swelling of eyelids and other soft tissues
    •          due to the presence of a mucous-like edema
  52. an over-active thyroid
    hyperthyroidism
  53. a goiter could develop due to hyperplasia
    hyperthyroidism
  54. the condition resulting from prolonged hyperthyroidism
    Grave's Disease
  55. exopthalmic goiter
    Grave's Disease
  56. eye pushes out
    exopthlmic goiter
  57. the gland enlarges and produces excessive amounts of thyroxin
    Grave's Disease
  58. more prevalent in females
    Grave's Disease
  59. Grave's Disease is characterized by(6)
    • 1. low body weight because of a very high BMR
    • 2. weakness
    • 3. tachycardia
    • 4. nervous excitability
    • 5. profuse sweating
    • 6. eyeball protrusion
    •         due to edema in the back of the eyesocket
  60. frequent in young adults and can lead to heart damage because of fibrillation
    Grave's Disease
  61. regulates blood calcium levels
    parathyroid glands
  62. secretes parathormone
    parathyroid glands
  63. regulates blood calcium levels
    parathormone
  64. a condition due to hypofunction of the parathyroid glands
    Parathyroid tetany
  65. lowered amounts of parathormone are secreted
    Parathyroid tetany
  66. calcium levels in the blood are reduced
    Parathyroid tetany
  67. causes nerve cells to become irritable and overactive
    reduced blood calcium levels
  68. leads to spasmatic muscular twitching, abnormal reflexes and convulsive seizures
    reduced blood calcium levels
  69. usually fatal due to constant contractions of the heart muscle
    Parathyroid tetany
  70. slows blood coagulation
    Parathyroid tetany
  71. increased amount of parathormone is secreted
    hyperparathyroidism
  72. calcium is drawn out of the bones and into the bloodstream

    results in hypercalcemia & bone absorption
    hyperparathyroidism
  73. hypercalcemia & bone absorption will cause (4)
    • 1. softening and deformation of bones
    • 2. formation of kidney stones
    • 3. hardening of the arteries
    • 4. heartbeat irregularities
  74. fibrous cysts may form in the bones causing a condition known as
    • Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica
    • von Recklinghausen's Disease
    • (hyperparathyroidism)
  75. located on top of the kidneys
    adrenal glands
  76. Adrenal glands are composed of two layers
    • 1. inner layer called the medulla
    • 2. outer portion called the cortex
  77. cortex of this gland is essential to life
    Adrenal gland
  78. the cortex secretes several hormones that regulate (3):
    • 1. salt levels in the blood
    • 2. blood glucose levels
    • 3. production of some mild sex hormones
  79. Diseases of the Adrenal Glands (3)
    • 1. Addison's Disease
    • 2. Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome
    • 3. Cushing's Disease
  80. a condition due to the hypofunction of the adrenal cortex
    Addison's Disease
  81. affects the hormones that regulate metobolism and blood pressure
    Addison's Disease
  82. Addison's Disease is characterized by(4)
    • 1. bronze pigmentation
    • 2. low blood pressure
    • 3. weakness and loss of weight
    • 4. gastro-intestinal disturbances
  83. usually caused by a chronic adrenal cortical insufficiency as a part of an autoimmune disorder
    Addison's Disease
  84. caused by a meningococcal infection of the blood
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome
  85. causes acute adrenal insufficiency due to hemorrhage into the adrenal gland
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome
  86. a condition due to the hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex

    due to excess exposure to hormones called glucocorticoids (steroids)
    Cushing's Disease
  87. most often a complication of steroid treatments for inflammation
    Cushing's Disease
  88. Cushing's Disease is characterized by: (7)
    • 1. adiposity
    • 2. impotence
    • 3. fatigue
    • 4. excess hair growth
    • 5. purplish skin discolorations
    • 6. creates a "moon-shaped" facial appearance
    • 7. the build-up of a fatty pad over the shoulders and upper back
  89. a heterocrine gland
    Pancreas
  90. both endocrine & exocrine functions
    a heterocrine gland
  91. the endocrine function takes place in the Islets or Islands of Langerhans
    Pancreas
  92. the Pancreas produces two hormones
    • 1. Insulin
    • 2. Glucagon
  93. Lowers blood sugar levels
    Insulin
  94. Raises blood sugar levels
    Glucagon
  95. a condition caused by a deficiency in insulin secretion
    Diabetes Mellitus
  96. causes a disorder in carbohydrate metabolism
    Diabetes Mellitus
  97. sugars cannot be carried into the cells and a buildup in the bloodstream ensues
    Diabetes Mellitus
  98. buildup in the bloodstream ensues
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Sugar diabetes
  99. when the cells have no glucose to use, they begin metabolizing fats and proteins
    Diabetes Mellitus
  100. with excess fat in the bloodstream, several of the following complications occur (5)
    • 1. Atherosclerosis
    • 2. Poor wound healing
    • 3. Vascular Obstructions
    • 4. Hemorrhage
    • 5. Gangrene
  101. predisposes to myocardial infarctions, gangrene, blindness

    last one due to affect on capillaries of the retina
    Atherosclerosis
  102. the most serious form of Diabetes Mellitis
    Juvenile onset diabetes
  103. the less serious form of Diabetes Mellitis
    Adult onset diabetes
  104. usually requires hypodermic injections of insulin and special diet
    Juvenile onset diabetes
  105. can be controlled with diet and oral medications
    Adult onset diabetes
  106. actually a part of the adrenal cortex
    Gonad Glands
  107. has to do with the secretion of androgen and estrogen
    Gonad Glands
  108. a condition caused by a hyperfunction of the gonads
    Precociousness
  109. appears to be premature puberty
    Precociousness
  110. hypersecretion of estrogen in females & androgen in males
    Precociousness
  111. a condition caused by a hyperfunction of the gonads
    Androgenital syndrome
  112. involves a hypersecretion of androgen in females & estrogen in males
    Androgenital syndrome
  113. Androgenital syndrome in females leads to: (4)
    • 1. excessive hair growth
    • 2. deepening voice
    • 3. decreased breast size
    • 4. amenorrhea
  114. Androgenital syndrome in males leads to: (3)
    • 1. testicular atrophy
    • 2. decreased libido
    • 3. gynecomastia
    •          excessive breast development
  115. atrophy of the testes or ovaries due to old age
    senile involution
  116. diseases of the gonad glands
    • 1. Precociousness
    • 2. Androgenital Syndrome
    • 3. Senile involution
  117. A hypersecretion of androgen in females and estrogen in males will lead to what disease?
    Androgenital Syndrome
  118. A hypersecretion of estrogen in females of androgen in males will lead to what disease?
    Precociousness
  119. A hypersecretion of parathormone will cause what disease?
    hypercalcemia
  120. A hyposecretion of parathormone will cause what disease?
    parathyroid tetany
  121. A lack of mental and physical development, including possible dwarfism, slow bone development, low body temperature, and retarded mentalactivity may be indicative of what condition?
    hypothyroidism
  122. A meningococcal infection of the blood may cause what disease of the adrenal glands?
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome
  123. Acromegaly is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    anterior pituitary
  124. Addison's disease is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    cortex of the Adrenal gland
  125. An acute adrenal insufficiency due to hemorrhage is indicative of what disease?
    Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome
  126. Androgenital syndrome is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Gonad Glads
  127. Cretinism is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Thyroid Gland
  128. Cushing's disease is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Adrenal
  129. Diabetes insipidus is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Posterior pituitary
  130. Diabetes mellitus is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Pancreas
  131. Dwarfism is usually due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Anterior pituitary
  132. Enlargement of the bones and soft tissues of the hands, feet and head is characteristic of what disease?
    acromegaly
  133. Giantism is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Anterior pituitary
  134. Give two characteristics of a giant.
    • 1. sexually impotent
    • 2. die of diabetes
  135. Grave's disease is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    thyroid
  136. Hyperoalcemia and bone absorption may occur in what condition?
    hyperparathyroidism
  137. Hyperfunction of the gonad glands will cause what two conditions?
    • 1. Precociousness
    • 2. Androgenital syndrome
  138. Hypofunction of the posterior lobe of the pituitary leads to what condition?
    Diabetes Insipidus
  139. Hypofunction of the thyroid gland in adulthood will cause what condition?
    Myxedema
  140. Hypofunction of the thyroid gland in childhood will cause what condition?
    cretinism
  141. Myxedema is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    thyroid
  142. Pituitary cachexia is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    entire pituitary
  143. Precociousness is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Gonad glands
  144. Prolonged hyperthyroidism may lead to what condition?
    • Grave's disease
    • (exopthalmic goiter)
  145. Simmond's disease is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Entire pituitary
  146. Spasmatic muscular twitching, abnormal reflexes and convulsive seizures may indicate what disease?
    parathyroid tetany
  147. The atrophy of the testes or ovaries in old age is the condition of what disease?
    senile involution
  148. The gonad glands are actually a part of what?
    the adrenal cortex
  149. The presence of a mucouslike edema may be a symptom of what condition?
    Myxedema
  150. The thyroid gland exerts an influence over what functions?(2)
    • 1. body growth and development
    • 2. nervous system
  151. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome is due to the malfunction of what gland?
    Adrenal gland
  152. Weight loss, atrophy of internal organs, loss of sexual function and premature aging may be
    indicative of what disease?
    Simmond's Disease
  153. What are all the characteristics of Cushing's disease?
    • adiposity
    • impotence
    • fatigue
    • excess hair growth
    • purplish skin discolorations
    • creates a "moon-shaped" facial appearance
    • buid-up of a fatty pad over the shoulders and upper back
  154. What are both names for the hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis?
    • somatotropin
    • HGH
  155. What are the characteristics of a dwarf?
    • remains quite small
    • never develops secondary sex characteristics
  156. What are the characteristics of Addison's disease?
    • bronze pigmentation
    • low blood pressure
    • weakness and loss of weight
    • gastro-intestinal disturbances
  157. What are the characteristics of an adult with hypopituitarism?
    • mental dullness
    • lethargy
  158. What are the characteristics of Grave's disease?
    • low body weight (high BMR)
    • weakness
    • tachycardia
    • nervous excitability
    • profuse sweating
    • eyeball protrusion
  159. What are the characteristics of hyperparathyroidism?
    • softening and deformation of bones
    • formation of kidney stones
    • hardening of the arteries
    • heartbeat irregularities
  160. What are the characteristics of myxedema?
    • weight gain
    • mental dullness
    • general sluggishness
    • thickening of the tongue and lips
    • swelling of eyelids and other soft tissues
    • drop in body temperature and metabolism
  161. What are the characteristics of one with diabetes insipidus?
    • polyuria
    • polydipsia
  162. What are the complications of diabetes mellitus?
    • 1. Atherosclerosis
    • 2. Poor wound healing
    • 3. Vascular Obstructions
    • 4. Hemorrhage
    • 5. Gangrene
  163. What are the symptoms of androgenitial syndrome in females?
    • 1. Excessive hair growth
    • 2. Deepened voice
    • 3. Decreased breast size
    • 4. Amenorrhea
  164. What are the symptoms of androgenital syndrome in males?
    • 1. Testicular atrophy
    • 2. Decreased libido
    • 3. Gynecomastia
  165. What causes diabetes insipidus?
    hypofunction of the posterior pituitary
  166. What could lead to a loss of function of the thyroid, adrenal and gonad glands?
    dysfunction of the Anterior Pituitary
  167. What disease appears to be premature puberty?
    precociousness
  168. What will acromegaly eventually lead to?
    • sexual impotence
    • drowsiness
    • possibly obesity
  169. What do the hormones of the adrenal cortex regulate?
    • salt levels in the blood
    • blood glucose levels
    • production of some mild sex hormones
  170. What do the parathyroid glands regulate?
    blood calcium levels
  171. What does a deficiency of insulin cause?
    • hyperglycemia
    • sugar diabetes
  172. What does glucagon do?
    raises blood sugar levels
  173. What does insulin do?
    lowers blood sugar levels
  174. What does the hormone somatotropin control?
    growth of bone and soft tissue
  175. What does thyroxin regulate?
    general body metabolism
  176. What functions does the anterior pituitary control?
    • skeletal growth
    • thyroid
    • adrenal glands
    • sexual development
  177. What functions does the posterior pituitary control?
    • muscle contraction
    •     birth
    •     peristalsis
  178. What gives a "lion-faced" appearance?
    acromegaly
  179. What happens in the body when lowered levels of parathormone are secreted? List all of the
    symptoms.
    • 1. reduced calcium levels in the blood
    • 2. nerve cells become irritable & overactive
    • 3. spasmatic muscular twitching
    •     abnormal reflexes
    •     convulsive seizures
    • 4. fatality
    • 5. slows blood coagulation
  180. What happens to the thyroid gland when a hyperfunction occurs?
    goiter due to hyperplasia
  181. What hormone does the thyroid gland secrete?
    thyroxin
  182. What hormones are affected by Addison's disease?
    • regulate metabolism
    • regulate blood pressure
  183. What hormones are produced by the pancreas?
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
  184. What hormones are secreted by the gonad glands?
    • androgen
    • estrogen
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  186. What is another name for the pituitary gland?
    the master gland
  187. What is caused by a chronic, adrenal cortical insufficiency?
    • Addison's Disease
    •     bronze pigmentation
    •     low blood pressure
    •     weakness and loss of weight
    •     gastro-intestinal disturbances
  188. What is the actual condition of too much sugar in the bloodstream called?(2)
    • Hyperglycemia
    • Sugar Diabetes
  189. What is the condition of complete atrophy of the pituitary gland?
    • pituitary cahcexia
    • Simmond's Disease
  190. What may cause goiter?
    • 1. lack of iodine in the diet
    • 2. inflammation from infection
    • 3. tumors
    • 4. hyper or hyposecretion of thyroxin
  191. What part of the adrenal glands is essential to life?
    Cortex
  192. What type of hormone is secreted from the posterior pituitary?
    antidiuretic hormone
  193. What type of malfunction occurs in Addison's disease?
    hypofunction of the adrenal cortex
  194. What type of malfunction occurs in Cushing's disease?
    hyperfunction of the adrenal cortex
  195. What type of malfunction occurs in diabetes mellitus?
    sugars can not be carried into the cells
  196. What will a hypersecretion of somatotropin in adulthood cause?
    Acromegaly
  197. What will a hypersecretion of somatotropin in childhood cause?
    • Giantism
    • Gigantism
  198. What will a hyposecretion of somatotropin in adulthood cause?
    adult onset hypopituitarism
  199. What will a hyposecretion of somatotropin in childhood cause?
    Dwarfism
  200. What will increase the blood-calcium levels?
    increased secretion of parathormone
  201. What will reduce the blood-calcium levels?
    decreased secretion of parathormone
  202. When body cells don't have enough glucose to metabolize, what happens?
    they begin metabolizing fats and proteins
  203. Where are the adrenalglands located?
    on top of the kidneys
  204. Where does the endocrine function of the pancreas occur
    Islets or Islands of Langerhans
  205. Where does the excess calcium come from in the condition of hyperparathyroidism?
    the bones
  206. Where is the pituitary gland found?
    under the circle of willis
  207. Where is the thyroid gland found?
    in the neck on either side of the windpipe
  208. Who is most often affected by hyperthyroidism?
    females

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