Psychology Chapter 13

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Psychology Chapter 13
2013-04-21 15:39:00

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  1. Personality
    A distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual throughout life
  2. Trait
    A characteristic of an individual describing a habitual way of behaving, thinking, and feeling
  3. Objective Tests (Inventories)
    Standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves 
  4. Factor Analysis
    A statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait or ability
  5. Temperaments 
    Physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate
  6. Heritability
    A statistical estimate of the proportion of the total variance in some trait that is attributable to genetic differences among individuals within a group
  7. Nonshared Environment 
    Unique aspects of a person's environment and experience that are not shared with family members
  8. Reciprocal Determinism 
    In social cognitive theories, the two way interaction between aspects of the environment and aspects of the individual in the shaping of personality traits
  9. Individualist Cultures
    Cultures in which the self is regarded as autonomous, and individual goals and wishes are prized above duty and relations with others
  10. Collectivist Cultures
    Cultures in which the self is regarded as embedded in relationships, and harmony with one's group is prized above indivudual goals and wishes
  11. Monochronic Cultures
    Cultures in which time is organized sequentially; schedules and deadlines are valued over people
  12. Polychronic
    Cultures in which time is organized horizontally; people tend to do several things at once and value relationships over schedules 
  13. Psychoanalysis
    A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy developed by Frued; it emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts
  14. Psychodynamic Theories
    Theories that explain behavior and personality in terms of unconscious energy dynamics within the individual
  15. Intrapsychic
    Within the mind (psych) or self
  16. ID
    In psychoanalysis, the part of personality containing inherited psychic energy, particularly sexual and aggressive insticts
  17. Lipido
    In psychoanalysis, the psychic energy that fuels the life or sexual instincts of the id
  18. Ego
    In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents reason, good sense, and rational self control
  19. Superego
    In psychoanalysis, the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards
  20.  Defense Mechanisms 
    Methods used by the ego to prevent unconscious anxiety or threatening thoughts from entering consciousness  
  21. Oedipus Complex
    In psychoanalysis, a conflict occurring in the phallic stage, in which a child desires the parent of the other sex and views the same sex parent as a rival
  22. Collective Unconscious
    In Jungian theory, the universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images that occur all across cultures 
  23. Archetypes
    Universal, symbolic images that appear in myths, art, stories, and dreams; to Jungians, the reflect the collective unconscious
  24. Object Relations School
    A Psychodynamic approach that emphasizes the importance of the infant's first two years of life and the baby's formative relationships, especially with the mother
  25. Humanistic Psychology
    A psychological approach that emphasizes personal growth, resilience, and achievement of human potential
  26. Unconditional Positive Regard
    To Carl Rogers, love or support given to another person with no conditions attached