Arboriculture

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Anonymous
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214910
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Arboriculture
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2013-04-22 01:53:47
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trees
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This class is dumb.
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  1. Lightning strikes, vascular wilt disease, cankers and girdling roots all have a similar impact on water transport in trees. What is the impact?
    It constricts the xylem and the phloem cells from transporting water or nutrients throughout the tree.
  2. Trees on campus are often located in lawns. Irrigation systems are programmed with primary consideration of the turf. How does this impact the trees root system architecture?
    The tree grows too close to the surface making the ground uneven and disturbing the grass/sidewalks. (Oaks/taproots work well in lawn areas)
  3. Trees on campus are often located in lawns. Irrigation systems are programmed with primary consideration of the turf. How does this impact the likelihood of tree drought stress in mid summer?
    There is a high risk of drought stress.
  4. Trees on campus are often located in lawns. Irrigation systems are programmed with primary consideration of the turf. How does this impact newly transplanted trees?
    Depends on where the tree was planted.
  5. Trees on campus are often located in lawns. Irrigation systems are programmed with primary consideration of the turf. How does this impact on tree trunks?
    If excessive water on the tree from sprinkler systems it will cause the trunk to rot.
  6. Application of de-icing salts and use of secondary water for irrigation can lead to salinity problems in the landscape. How can the landscape manager reduce/mitigate each of these?
    Use a minimum amount of salt as possible. Leach out salts in May if you have a bad winter.
  7. When are anti-transpirants most commonly used in arboriculture?
    Probably used during extremely hot weather, drought prone areas; such as near a building when a tree may be prone to getting sun scald. One problem with these is that the stomates may get plugged.

    Most commonly used in transporting trees long distances.  Problems: Tree's internal temperature gets lethally high since it cannot transpire; Tree not able to take in CO2 for photosynthesis because stomata are closed.
  8. What are three types of fertilizer application to trees and not used on turf?
    Injections (pressure injections: deep fertilization), spray, or implant capsules.
  9. If a climber warns "stand clear" they should not proceed until hearing what?
    All Clear.
  10. Conifers are classified as what type of trees?
    Gymnosperms.
  11. What is a scientific and common name for a tree with whorled buds?
    Catalpa speciosa, commonly known as the northern catalpa, hardy catalpa, western catalpa, cigar tree, and catawba-tree, is a species of Catalpa native to the midwesternUnited States.
  12. If the soil on a site has poor structure, what can the landscape manager do to improve it?
    Mix organic matter in it, aerate it or give it better drainage.
  13. How does improving soil by aeration, adding organic matter, or better drainage help the soil structure?
    Increases nutrient holding capacity and CEC. Also helps aggregate the soil and that gives macro pore space as well as aeration.
  14. If soil has poor nutrient holding capacity, what can the landscape manager do to improve it?
    Mix in organic matter.
  15. How does mixing in organic matter improve the nutrient holding capacity?
    Organic matter is rich in nutrients and improves CEC which holds the nutrients better.
  16. If a soil is low in micronutrients, what can be done to improve it? And how does that improve micronutrients?
    Be fertilized with micro nutrients, adjust the pH (limestone), keylated iron is best for soil to keep the iron. The soil is directly given what it needs.
  17. If a tree is growing in a lawn, what will the tree and lawn compete for?
    Water, nutrients, light, and root space.
  18. What competitions with turf with the tree likely lose to?
    Nutrients and water.
  19. What can the landscape manager do to improve the ability for the tree to compete successfully? How does doing that improve the trees ability to compete?
    Give it a tree ring with sprinklers, mulch the rings and cluster the trees together. Water is readily available at the base of the tree. Base tree roots won't compete with turf.
  20. True or false? Head protection need only be worn while there are climbers in the tree?
    FALSE!
  21. Briefly indicate their role in developing safety requirements for arboricultural operations: OSHA.
    OSHA is Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The make and enforce strict safety standards. They will fine people for not following the standards.
  22. Briefly indicate their role in developing safety requirements for arboricultural operations: ISA.
    International Society of Arboriculture. Gives training on tree care and guidelines for safety.
  23. Briefly indicate their role in developing safety requirements for arboricultural operations: F. A. Bartlett Tree Expert Company.
    Bartlett Tree Experts was founded in 1907 by Francis A. Bartlett and is the world’s leading scientific tree and shrub care company.
  24. Briefly indicate their role in developing safety requirements for arboricultural operations: Husqvarna.
    Husqvarna is a landscape equipment making company.
  25. What should the ground workers asume when arborists are working in a tree and call, "Stand clear!" What is the appropriate response when it is safe to proceed?
    The grounds worker should assume that there are large branches falling that could kill people. The worker should then move out of the way along with other workers and call back "all clear."
  26. True of false: By law in the U.S., tree workers are required to ware leg protection both on the ground  and while climbing?
    False. Only on the ground is it required, usually when using a chainsaw.
  27. An important action that should be taken at the start of a construction site is to erect           around all of the trees that are to remain.
    barriers
  28. Briefly explain what an ideal tree protection zone accomplishes.
    Protects the trunks and roots.
  29. Written             should include all measures intended to protect trees. They should detail exactly what can and cannot be done to and around the trees.
    Specifications
  30. A technique used to reduce soil compaction around trees on a construction site is to spread a temporary, thick layer of                 . 
    Organic mulch, 6" or more. Temporary, do not leave it there.
  31.             are people and/or property that could be damaged or injured if the tree falls/fails. If there is no              there is no risk.
    Target, target.
  32. What are indicators of tree decay?
    Conks, carpenter ants, and hollowing.
  33. Following construction, forest trees on the edge of remaining stands are prone to failure due to what?
    Poor taper resulting in reduced trunk stability.
  34. When selecting a tree the entire tree should be examined, especially the                      .
    root ball
  35. When planting a tree, the hole (planting basin) should be what?
    Slightly less than the root ball in clay soils. So the tree will be planted slightly about the original grade.
  36. What are two or three things to look for in: cabling?
    Use of cables to strengthen weak crotches or co-dominant branches. Cable 2/3 of the distance from the third of attachment.
  37. What are two or three things to look for in: bracing?
    Use of rods or bolts, drill rods through branch into another branch to strengthen weak spots.
  38. What are two or three things to look for in: guying?
    Using an external (exterior) source such as another tree or metal stake. Use cable or other materials to tie branches or tree to an outside object to help it grow straight or strengthen it.
  39. Installation of lightning protection is profitable for many arboriculture companies. However, we certainly don't protect all trees this way. Which trees should be considered for protection in lightning prone areas?
    Trees that are really tall or taller than a building. Trees in public parks, or historic trees .
  40. Abiotic disorders are know as what?
    noninfectious
  41. What are the 6 steps in the systematic diagnosis process?
    1) Accurately identify the plant 2) look for a pattern of abnormality 3)carefully examine the site 4) note the color, size, and thickness of the foliage 5) check the trunk and branches 6) examine the roots and root collar
  42. True or false: Anaerobic soil, an unhealthy soil condition, can often be detected by smell.
    True.
  43. Winter sunscald (frost cracks) is associated with a variety of biotic disorders. t or f?
    false
  44. 'Sunburst' honey locust, 'Frisia' locust, 'Gold Spot' euonymus, and several junipers are selected for landscape use because of normal yellow foliage. For other plants, yellow leaves in midsummer may indicate a nutrient deficiency, some other soil problems or root abnormality. This illustrates the importance of distinguishing between what is                  from what is              .
    normal from what is abnormal.
  45. In dry areas of the western US, the most common nutrient deficiency is what?
    Iron
  46. T or F? Most fungi and bacteria encountered by trees are beneficial.
    TRUE!
  47. Insects, water, pruning tools and wind are examples of vectors. What is a vector?
    A carrier of a disease.
  48. T or F? Plant parasitic nematodes are microscopic worms. They only attack plant roots.
    False.
  49. What are some abiotic factors?
    • Environmental» Soil, water, light
    • Mechanical» Girdling, too deep, trunk/root damage
    • Physiological» Chemical, nutritional
  50. What are some biotic factors?
    • Diseases: Foliar and shoot, Vascular, Cankers
    • Arthropods (Insects, mites):Defoliators (consume foliage), Sap sucking (bronzed or distorted foliage), Borers (dieback), Parts or products of arthropods (galls, tents, skins, honeydew, etc.)
    • Vertebrates (Deer, rodents, etc.)
  51. What do foliar shoot diseases do?
    » Usually caused by fungi» Attack foliage or shoot tip» Favored by cool, wet weather» Often must be prevented rather than cured» Examples– Apple scab– Cedar apple rust– Sycamore anthracnose – Diplodia tip blight
  52. What do vascular wilt diseases do?
    Usually caused by fungi» Grow in tree vascular system– Disrupts water/nutrient flow– Tree often strangles itself» Some carried (vectored) by insects» Some cannot be cured» Examples– Dutch elm disease– Oak wilt– Verticillium wilt – Elm phloem necrosis
  53. What do canker diseases do?
    Usually caused by fungi» Infection of a woody part of tree– Twig, branch, trunk, root– Typically results in dieback» Most cannot be cured» Examples– Cytospora canker of spruce– Nectria Canker of maple– Botryosphaeria of redbud – Armillaria root rot of oak
  54. What do defoliators do?
    Chewed foliage or leaves» Caterpillars, sawflies, adult beetles, grasshoppers, slugs» Can often be managed» Examples– Gypsy moth– European pine sawfly– Birch leafminer– Bagworm– Japanese beetle
  55. What do sap sucking arthropods do?
    Stippled, bleached, bronzed, streaked, or distorted foliage» Piercing-sucking mouthparts» Some inject toxins or vector disease» Can often be managed» Examples– Aphids– Leafhoppers and plant bugs– Scale Insects– Mites
  56. What do borer insects do?
    Dieback of plant parts» Chewing mouthparts» Tunnel in wood, destroy vascular system or cause structural problems» Can be difficult to manage» Examples– Bronze birch borer– Asian longhorn beetle– Emerald ash borer– Peach tree borer– Bark beetles– Zimmerman pine moth
  57. What do arthropod insects produce?
    Indicate presence of the pest» Often remain for weeks, even years after damage has occurred» Examples– Tents/webs– Honeydew– Fecal spots– Cast skins– Pitch masses– Cottony wax– galls
  58. What are some symptoms of pest problems?
    Chlorosis (yellowing)» Scorch/burn» Vascular discoloration» Gummosis (fluxing)» Wilt/dieback, Fruiting structures» Frass» Actual pest» Culture» Characteristic pattern
  59. What are some cultural tactics to keep pests and diseases away?
    Resistant Cultivars» Species Selection/Diversity» Pruning» Soil Management– Nutritional/Chemical– Physical– Biological» Water Management
  60. What are some mechanical tactics in keeping pests and diseases away?
    Pest Destruction by Hand» Pest Exclusion
  61. What are some biological tactics used to keep pests away?
    Natural Enemy Conservation– Minimize pesticide use» Buying lady beetles or praying mantis egg cases isn’t typically recommended
  62. What are some chemical tactics in keeping pests away?
    Biorationals» Attractants/Repellents» Synthetics
  63. What does treeage mean?
    A system designed to produce the greatest benefit from limited treatment facilities.
  64. What is the purpose of a treeage?
    • To evaluate the options available (or not available) for treatment.
    • To prioritize the need for response to a given landscape situation.
    • To document the rationale of how work should be prioritized
  65. What are the treeage categories?
    Priority 1-Red» An immediate threat to people or property exists» Situation involves a “Regulatory Pest” Priority 2-Yellow» The plant will likely decline and die or be aesthetically unacceptable unless appropriate action is taken– This assumes that effective treatment options are available Priority 3-Green» The plant will likely survive whether or not treatments are applied Priority 4-Black» The plant is already dead or will not survive regardless of treatment
  66. What is an example of priority one of the treeage?
    Typically involves high risk trees» Immediate intervention warranted» Removal of tree or limb is recommended» May have short and longer term components
  67. What is an example of priority two in the treeage?
    Magnolia Scale» Without treatment, populations will likely increase, resulting in death of twigs, branches, or possibly the entire tree
  68. What is an example of priority 2 for early detection in the treeage?
    Insects» Euonymus scale» Bronze birch borer» Zimmerman Pine Moth– Christmas Trees Diseases» Verticillium wilt» Oak wilt (white oak group)» Sphaeropsis (Diplodia) tip blight» Apple scab– Susceptible cultivars during favorable weather Abiotic Issues» Over/under watering» Pines in heavy shade» Chlorosis caused by nutrient shortages» Compacted soils» Salt laden soils
  69. What are some priority 3 examples in the treeage?
     Insects» Most aphids» Honeylocust plant bug/leafhopper» Twig girdlers/pruners Diseases» Many leaf spot diseases» Bacterial wetwood – May indicate decay Abiotic concerns» Early/late freeze injury» Winter burn» Burls or other benign growths
  70. What are some priority 4 examples in the treeage?
    Insect» Advanced bronze birch borer» Heavy euonymus scale» Peach borer on purple leaf plum Diseases» Advanced DED» Elm phloem necrosis» Advanced Armellaria root rot» Bacterial leaf scorch Abiotic» Severe bark girdling» Severe winter injury» Severe stem girdling roots» Severe root injury– Structural roots » Severe chemical injury
  71. What are targets?
    People, Buildings, vehicles, foot traffic, Roads and/or pathways
  72. What does CODIT mean?
    Compartmentalization of decay in trees.
  73. What are the four main parts of the CODIT model?
    1) Wound 2) Response of the compartmented tree to compartmentalize the injured and infected wood; 3) Succession of microorganisms as a force against the survival force of the tree; 4) Development of discolored or decayed wood within compartments.  The compartmentalization concept has two major parts: Part 1 includes events to the wood present at the time of wounding; part 2 includes events that take place after wounding.
  74. The "Walls" are not biological features.  They are terms used to describe.  Compartmentalization is a boundary-setting defense process. What are the four walls?
    • Wall 1: Keeps decay from vertical spreading  (decay tends to go into trunk and                             down).
    • Wall 2: Resistance of decay INWARD, where it stops at the growth rings.  If it gets to                             the middle, there's no wall 2 anymore.
    • Wall 3: "Wound Wood"  resists LATERAL SPREAD.
    • Wall 4: Protects against OUTWARD SPREAD.  It is the strongest barrier. It separates the wood present at the time of wounding from the new wood that continues to form.
  75. What happens if the branch bark ridge is cut into?
    If cut into, microorganisms can get into tree.  A hollow tree has lost the race against decay.  It's common for walls 1-3 to fail, which will lead to a hollow cavity.
  76. What are the principles of ecology?
    Ecology deals with the interactions among organisms as well as with their environment.  Following design and installation, your landscape functions as a semi-managed ecosystem.  As such, landscape plants are subjected to a variety of forces that affect their ability to grow and flourish.  Application of ecological principles to the design process is important in assuring that design goals are realized in the mature landscape.
  77. What is the principle of ecology #1 and some examples of it?
    Principle 1.Landscape management is the management of competition between desirable (turfgrass, trees, flowers, beneficial microbes, etc.) and undesirable (weeds, pathogens, pests, etc.) organisms.  In other words, a properly designed and managed landscape will favor the plants you want, while penalizing those you don’t.  Examples:Design/Installation-Only the plants you select become part of the ecosystem; proper soil preparation favors beneficial fungiMowing-Favors turfgrass; penalizes young woody plants and weedsMulching-Prevents weed seeds from germinating and competing with desired plants.  -Reduces soil moisture loss and drought stress;            -Decomposing organic residues promote improved aggregate stability, beneficial macro- and micro-organisms.Drip irrigation-In arid climates, permits only desired plants to be watered.
  78. What is the principle of ecology #2 and some examples of it?
    Principle 2.  All organisms differ in response to the major growth factors (light, water, nutrients, air, and temperature).  Plants differ in response to mowing or pruning.  These differences allow #1 above.Examples:Mowing-Leads to dense lawn, which captures more light and reduces competitive ability of weeds.Pruning shade trees-Allows more light to reach grass and other low-growing plants, allowing them to compete more effectively; reduces humidity, thereby reducing competitiveness of most diseased organisms.
  79. What is the principle of ecology #3 and some examples of it?
    Principle 3.  There is an optimum set of conditions when considering the major growth factors, under which any plant type will be most productive and competitive.  If you can discern and provide for the optimum levels of light, water, nutrients, soil, air, mowing, pruning, etc., desirable plants will be competing at their best.  By selecting suitable plants and properly locating them during the design process, the various microclimates operating within the landscape will enhance your potential for success.  REMEMBER:  It is almost always easier to avoid problems through proper planning than trying to keep an “unhappy plant” alive.  Review your final design to make sure that selected locations are ecologically correct for all plants.  REMEMBER:  Optimum does not mean maximum. Maximum growth (such as by applying excessive fertilizer to lawns in the spring) usually weakens plants, making them more susceptible to diseases and environmental stress.
  80. What is the principle of ecology #4 and some examples of it?
    Principle 4.  There are limits of tolerance related to conditions under which a plant can grow.Examples:   Sun and shade loving plants.  (Consider a perennial garden with daisies, hostas, and violets.  Daisies require a certain minimum amount of light in order to live.  If the minimum is not provided, daisies will not be able to compete with hostas or violets, which utilize light more efficiently and tolerate lower light levels.) Mowing-  If you regularly mow too short, only a few types of grass will survive (generally the less desirable ones).
  81. What is the principle of ecology #5 and some examples of it?
    Principle 5.   There are interactions between growth factors; changing one condition often changes several things.Examples:Excessive irrigation-Leaches nutrients from soil and changes pH (interaction between water and nutrients);  Decreases air in soil  (interaction between air and soil)
  82. What is the principle of ecology #6 and some examples of it?
    Principle 6.There is an accumulation effect associated with constant or regular treatment applications.  Example:Watering trees the same as lawns results in very shallow tree roots that compete with the lawn for water and nutrients—may detrimentally affect both.
  83. What is the principle of ecology #7 and some examples of it?
    Principle 7.“One-shot” or “quick-fix” treatments usually fail because the tendency is for the landscape ecosystem to return to its original condition.  Examples: Weeding-  (just once isn’t enough)Hedge pruningAerating -just once
  84. What is the principle of ecology #8 and some examples of it?
    Principle 8.   When things are not going right, an effective strategy is to identify the factor or condition furthest from the optimum and correct it first.  This is a very important principle because it adds incentive to learn and occasionally allows us to perform seemingly magical things.  The reason is that all factors interact and when the furthest from the optimum is corrected it usually interacts to shift responses to all the other factors closer to the optimum.
  85. What is the principle of ecology #9 and some examples of it?
    Principle 9.  If things are working well, don’t fix them (unless…..?)
  86. When drawing and sketching a tree what should you include?
    1) Determine what kind of tree it is--bare-root vs. balled and burlapped: If balled and burlapped, remove burlap and wire; 2) no damage to bark; 3) no girdling roots; 4) only slow-release fertilizer (if at all); 5) same soil in hole as in surrounding area; 6) Root ball should be 10 times diameter of trunk; 7) the hole should be basin-shaped; 8) soil only goes up to beginning of roots; 9) mulch, mulch, mulch! (in moderation)
  87. What are the IPM controls?
    1) regulatory controls; 2) genetic controls; 3) biological controls; 4) Cultural controls; 5) Chemical controls; 6) Mechanical controls.
  88. What are the three ingredients of the urban soil mix?
    Structural Soil  1) Hydrogel, which binds, and stabilizes soil.  30 g of hydrogel per 100 Kg of soil; 2) Soil, and the ratio to crushed rock is 20% clay, 80% crushed rock; 3) Crushed rock.
  89. What should people look for during tree inspection?
    • Taper, Structural defects (many limbs originating from same area of tree, included bark, etc.), Decay or dieback, Take note of lean, Fruiting bodies, Branches beyond crown, or broken limbs, Girdling roots, High or heavy load (big branches), Co-dominant stems, Examine trunk, root collar, root zone, Tree species, biology, and common modes of failure for it, Crown discoloration**Environment** Soil compaction, standing water, Buildings or other targets, Certain insects
    • **Targets**People, Buildings, vehicles, foot traffic, Roads and/or pathways
  90. When is the trunk formula method used to appraise a tree?
    When the diameter of the tree trunk is more that 4".
  91. why trees are important in an urban setting?
    Economically, socially, environmentally.
  92. Compare and contrast the "art" and science" of horticulture.
    (Science: knowing where to make pruning cuts.  Art: Make it aesthetically pleasing.)(Horticulture is an art as well as a science.  The "art" of horticulture refers to those aspects that require skill and timing, and is acquired primarily by hands-on experience.  The "science of hort. refers to factual knowledge about plants and is mastered primarily thru study and research.  Taking classes and reading hort periodicals is important in order to acquire an understanding of how plants grow.)
  93. What is a spur?
    A spur grows many leaves at nodes that are VERY close together.  This enables the leaves to photosynthesize and send the carbs to the fruit.
  94. What is verticillium wilt?
    Verticillium wilt is fungus resulting from soil-borne fungi. This fungus is known as Verticillium dahliae. It can survive in the soil as mycelia (microsclerotia). These mycelia are resting structures that look like small threads. The fungus is able to do this saprophytically, which is to live off of dead or decaying organic matter. The microsclerotia can live in the soil for more than 10 years without a host. Warm temperatures or excessive moisture may kill off the microsclerotia (2). Microsclerotia are resistant to droughts and cold temperatures.Verticillium wilt will target plants through their roots when wounded or stressed. The fungus enters the plant and moves through the vascular system and move upward and into the stems. As it grows upward and infects the plant, it will plug up the vascular vessels and disable the plants xylem and phloem from functioning properly. The disabling of sugars and water getting throughout the plant is what causes the major symptoms. The infected stem or branch will have wilting leaves, unlike the rest of the plant and will eventually die back.
  95. What is fireblight?
    Fireblight is a serious disease of many plants in the Rosacae family, and apple and pear trees.  It was the first disease shown to be caused by a bacterium.  The bacterium infects natural openings in the flower. In trees the bacterium spreads rapidly in the flower parts and in the current annual growth tissues of the plant.  The leaves die and wrinkle as if burned, thus the name for the blight.  The bacteria fall into the natural openings within the branch crotches, and spread to form cankers.  When many cankers come together, the stem dies.  However, the dead leader will remain seperate from living codominant stems or branches.  If many cankers form on the trunk, the tree will be killed, or if the blight reaches the roots.
  96. What are the scientific and genus names of my trees?
    • Tricolor European Beech  Fagus sylvatica 'Tricolor' (suseptible to the wolly beech aphid and wood decay)
    • White Fir Abies concolor (root rot)
    • Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba (pest resistant)
    • Green Atlas Cedar Cedrus atlantica (not bothered by pests, root rot, tip blight, and borers)

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