PHA 327 - Exam 2 - Disperse Systems 1
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A plot of n vs. 1/K shows what type of relationship?
The slope of a plot of ln-1(intercept)is equal to what?
What does R equal for use in a plot of n vs. 1/K?
What does R equal in the equation Ev/R = slope?
What are the units for Ev?
What does the intercept of a graph of n vs. 1/K represent?
A = ln-1(intercept)
ln-1(intercept) of a graph of ln-1(intercept) represents what?
Pseudoplastic or plastic flowing substances flow more readily with increased shear?
Blood has what flow property?
What is viscoelasticity?
Possess both solid and liquid properties
What six factors affect blood viscoelasticity?
- Plasma viscosity
- Red blood cell deformability
- Aggregation and hematocrit
- Plasma proteins
- Clinically relevant control fluids
- Pathological conditions
What pathological conditions affect blood viscoelasticity (as described in class)?
- Myocardial infarction
- Peripheral vascular disease
What clinically relevant control fluid can affect blood viscoelasticity?
What are the electrical properties of colloidal dispersions?
- Zeta potential
- Donnan membrane equilibrium
What is the zeta potential?
The potential difference between the surface of the tightly bound layer (shear plane) and the electro-neutral region of the solution
What is the term for the potential difference that exists between the shear plane and the electro-neutral region of a solution?
What is the shear plane?
- A double layer of electric charge
- Two layers of ions at the interface of the particle and the potential determining ions
What does the zeta particle govern?
The degree of repulsion between adjacent similarly charged disperse particles
What governs the degree of repulsion between adjacent, similarly charged, dispersed particles?
The zeta potential
- The zeta potential is reduced below a certain level and the attractive forces between particles exceed the repulsive forces.
- The particles come together
What is the term for the situation when the zeta potential s reduced below a certain level allowing particles to attract one another?
Why will colloidal particles usually move under the influence of an electric field?
Because they are usually charged
Will a positive charged colloid particle move towards the cathode or anode?
Will a negatively charged colloid particle move towards the cathode or anode?
The movement of charged particles under the influence of an electric field
What is electrophoresis usually used for?
Analysis of mixtures of proteins and nucleic acids
What is electro-osmosis?
The flow of a solvent when a charged particle is stabilized and an electric field is applied
What is the term for solvent flow when a charged particle is stabilized in a solvent under the application of an electric field?
Electro-osmosis creates a solvent movement in the opposite direction as the movement of a particle in electrophoresis (T/F)?
If a particle moves towards the anode in electrophoresis, what way will the solvent flow under electro-osmosis if that particle is stabilized?
Toward the cathode
What is Donnan Membrane Equilibrium?
The equilibrium in a system of two electrolyte solutions separated by a semi-permeable membrane with one solution contain a non-permeable ion
What is the term for the equilibrium in a system with two electrolyte solutions separated by a semi-permeable membrane, where one solution contains a non-permeable ion?
Donnan Membrane Equilibrium
(T/F) a polyelectrolyte inside a semi-permeable sac will affect the equilibrium ratio of what?
A diffusible ion
The Equilibrium concentration of a diffusible ion can be effected by what other type of ion (as discussed in the Donnan Membrane equilibrium)?
What equation describes the Donnan Membrane potential?
- [Clo]/[Cli] = square root of (1+ [Ri]/[Cli])
- Where Cl represents an ion of equal charge to R
What assumptions are made for the Donnan Membrane Equillibrium?
- Electrolytes are completely disassociated
- After equilibrium is achieved the concentration of NaCl must be equal on both sides
What is the pharmaceutical relevance of the Donnan Membrane Potential?
Enhanced absorption of drugs via a polyelectrolyte
What example of a polyelectrolyte was given in class?
Sodium Carboxymethyl cellulose
What drugs can benefit from enhanced absorption with the addition of a polyelectrolyte?
- Sodium salicylate
- Benzyl Penicillin
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