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Previously pharmacists dispensed powdered drugs, what is dispensed now?
Describe the release of a conventional dosage form:
- High initial release
- Exponential decay
- Results in cyclic drug concentration
What is the advantage of a drug delivery system?
Creates a desired release profile
What is a drug delivery system?
An optimized drug product designed to release drugs in a safe efficacious and reliable way
What are the advantages of a drug delivery system?
- Fewer side effects
- Controlled rate of delivery
- Increased efficacy
- Constant delivery
When were sustained release products first available?
Late 1940s to early 1950s
When were controlled drug delivery systems introduced?
Mid to late 1960s
When were therapeutic systems first introduced?
What were sustained release products designed to do?
Release an initial therapeutic level of a drug and maintain that level for a long time
What are controlled drug delivery systems designed to do?
Retard drug release to obtained sustained drug action
What were Therapeutic systems designed to do?
Optimize drug therapies by improving the pharmacological and therapeutic properties of drugs
What examples were given in class for Therapeutic systems?
- Transmucosal or transdermal systems
Transmucosal systems, transdermal systems and Implants are all examples of what type of drug delivery system?
What is the equation for flux?
- J = dM/S.dt = -D( dC/dX)
- M = amount of material passing through
- S = surface area
- t = time
The flux approximately equals what?
The concentration gradient
What is the permeability coefficient?
What is the equation for the permeability coefficient?
- P= DK/h
- D = diffusion coefficient
- K = Partition coefficient
- h=thickness of the membrane
What are the units of the Permeability coefficient?
What are the units for P?
What is the equation for lag time?
tL = lag time = h2/6D
What is the lag time?
The time prior to the steady state of diffusion
What types of Oral drug delivery systems exist?
- Dissolution-Diffusion controlled
- Osmotic pressure controlled
What route of administration utilizes Dissolution-diffusion and Osmotic pressure controlled release systems?
What types of GI specific drug delivery system sexist?
- Delaying excipients
- Effervescent tablets
- Colon targeting systems
Describe what a colon targeting system is:
A pH controlled coating that it insoluble in low pH but dissolves in higher pH’s
What types of Targeted drug delivery systems exist?
- Monoclonal antibodies
- Liposomal drug delivery
Monoclonal antibodies, Nanotechnology and Liposomal drug delivery systems are what general type of drug delivery systems?
Describe the action of Monoclonal antibodies:
The bind to cancer specific antigens and induce an immune response that results in cancer cell apoptosis
What types of Solubility improving drug delivery systems exist?
- Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems
- Amorphous systems
- Solid dispersion systems
What general type of drug delivery system are Self-emulsifying drug Delivery systems, amorphous systems and solid systems?
Use of decaying excipients, effervescent tablets and Colon targeting systems are all what general type of drug delivery system?
GI specific drug delivery systems
What type of Injectable drug delivery systems exist?
- Insulin pens
- Insulin pumps
What type of Inhalation drug delivery systems exist?
- Metered dose inhalers
- Dry powder inhalers
- Inhalation Nasal sprays
Insulin pens and pumps are what type of general drug delivery systems?
Metered dose inhalers, Dry powder inhalers and Inhalation nasal sprays are what general type of delivery system?
What transdermal drug delivery systems exist?
- Transdermal patch
- Coated implantable
- Drug mixed with polymer and contained with membrane