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2013-05-03 13:14:53

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  1. ANP will cause the blood pressure to     , and aldosterone will cause the blood
    pressure to    
    decrease : increase
  2. Which of the following statements is true, concerning the depolarization of a cell in the SA node?
    The pacemaker action potential is slower in achieving threshold when acetylcholine is applied to cells.
  3. Which types of vessel has the highest pressure?
  4. Which of the following will DECREASE systemic blood pressure
  5. Choose the correct description of Starling’s law
    Increased venous return stretches the sarcomeres of the heart to their optimal length
  6. With regard to the regulation of heart rate
    • a. stimulation of parasympathetic nerves to the heart causes a slowing of heart rate.
    • b. Stimulation of sympathetic nerves to the heart causes an increase in heart rate.
    • c. A person whose heart lacks all autonomic innervation has a faster heart rate at rest than a person with a normally innervated heart.
  7. Which of the following channels are involved in
    contractile cells of the heart?
    • B.Voltage-gated Na+ channels
    • C. Voltage-gated Ca+2 channels
  8. Which of the following factors would tend to increase blood pressure?
    • a.increased sympathetic stimulation of the blood vessels
    • b.increased blood volume
    • c.increased venous return
    • d. increased epinephrine release from adrenal medulla
    • e. all of the above
  9. The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex
    • a. regulates blood pressure to the brain
    • b. responds to low blood pressure by activation the sympathetic nervous system
    • c. responds to high blood pressure by activating the parasympathetic nervous system.
    • d. All of the above
  10. If an increase in blood pressure is detected in the right atrium, which of the following
    would occur?
    • a. sympathetic increase of heart rate
    • c. increased vasoconstriction
  11. The aortic arch baroreceptor reflex
    • a. regulates systemic arterial blood pressure
    • b. responds to high pressure by activating the parasympathetic nervous system
    • c. responds to low pressure by activating the cardioacceleratory center in the medulla oblongata
  12. Which of the following would directly add to vessel resistance?
    • a. increased vessel length due to weight gain
    • b. atherosclerosis
    • c. dehydration leading to added viscosity
    • d. all of the above
  13. Put the following events in the cardiac cycle in order, beginning immediately after atrial
    • isovolumetric ventricular contraction
    • ventricular ejection
    • isovolumetric ventricular relaxation
    • ventricular filling
  14. Which of the following would cause an increase in cardiac output, if detected in the aortic arch?
    • a. low systemic arterial O2
    • b. high systemic arterial CO2
    • c. low systemic arterial PH
    • d. high systemic arterial H+
    • e. all of the above
  15. Which of the following will increase stroke volume?
    • a. increased sympathetic stimulation
    • b. increased preload
    • c. increased venous return
    • d. all of the above
  16. Afferent arteriole vasoconstriction ____________ blood flow into the glomerulus, which causes the
    glomerular capillary blood pressure to ________ , leading to a(n)____________
    in the net filtration pressure and a resultant ___________ in the GFR.
    a. decrease, decrease, decrease, decrease
  17. As resistance increases, systemic blood flow will__________. As ΔP increases, systemic blood flow tends to ___________.
    a. decrease, increase
  18. Basic renal process include
    • a. filtration from bowmans capsule into the
    • glomerulus
    • b. secretion from the tubule into the peritubular capillaries
    • c. reabsorption from the capillaries into the tubules
    • d. A and B
    • e. None of the above
  19. The amount of a substance that is excreted in the urine is equal to the amount that is ___________ plus the amount that is________ minus the amount that is ___________.
  20. Each of the following substances is initially present in filtrate in the PCT in the kidney. Which one is not normally present in urine?
  21. Which of the following substances undergo renal secretion?
    potassium ion
  22. Which organ has the most variable blood flow needs?
    Skeletal muscles
  23. The myogenic regulation response in the kidney to HIGH systemic blood pressure would be
    constrict afferent arterioles
  24. Which of the following would cause an increase in Na+ reabsorption at the proximal convoluted tubule?
    • a. decreased blood volume
    • b. decreased blood pressure
    • c. decreased cardiac output
    • d. all of the above
    • e. none of the above
  25. In order for WATER to be absorbed at the distal convoluted tubule________ must be present
  26. What is the condition of the valves during ventricular ejection?
    atrioventricular valves: closed; semilunar valves open
  27. Which is true of tubuloglomerular feedback
    increased flow in the distal convoluted tubule causes and afferent arteriole constriction response
  28. Which of these true?
    • when resistance increases, flow increase
    • when vessel radius increases, flow increases
  29. Which of the following deceases EDV (end diastolic ventricular volume)?
  30. Sympathetic nervous system stimulation increases
    • a. ventricular contractility
    • b. SA node depolarization
  31. Angiotensin II
    • a. causes vasoconstriction
    • b. stimulates aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex
    • c. is produced when blood pressure is low
    • d. is produced by ACE
    • e. all of the these
  32. If stroke volume falls because of a weak myocardium, the body will attempt to maintain blood flow by
    increasing heart rate
  33. Exercise will increase which of the following
    • a. heart rate
    • b. stroke volume
    • c. venous return
    • d. blood pressure
    • e. all of the above
  34. Which of the following would cause local arteriole vasoconstriction, if detected in a specific systemic capillary bed?
    • a. low o2
    • b. high co2
    • c. low ph
    • d. all of the above
    • e. none of the above
  35. Increasing the GFR will increase the loss rate of sodium into the urine
  36. Renin is released in the kidney in response to high blood pressure
  37. Cardiac muscle cannot undergo tetanus because its absolute refractory period lasts as
    long as the muscle contraction.
  38. The pons of the brain controls heart rate.
  39. Aldosterone causes sodium secretion and potassium absorption
  40. Valves are important for promoting one-way flow of blood through the heart and veins
  41. Hypertension is often treated with drugs that increase resistance
  42. The sinoatrial node is normally the hearts pacemaker because it has the fastest
    spontaneous rate of depolarization
  43. The most important function of the cardiovascular system is to maintain blood
    pressure within normal ranges regardless of blood flow to capillary beds. : False
  44. Increased parasympathetic stimulation of the heart will decrease heart rate and stroke
  45. The three mechanisms used to regulate blood pressure are: vessel diameter, vessel
    length, and cardiac output.
  46. Sympathetic nervous system activation tens to increase glomerular filtration rate
  47. Regulated K+ reabsorption
  48. Glomerular filtration is very effective, in part, because the diameter of the efferent
    arteriole is larger than the afferent arteriole
  49. The aortic semilunar valve
    Prevents the backflow of blood into the left ventricle during ventricular relaxation
  50. With regard to the regulation of heart rate
    A, B and C
  51. inspiration occurs as a result of
    • b. increase in size of the thoracic cavity due to contraction of the inspiratory (external) intercostal muscles.
    • c. a downward movement of the diaphragm
  52. The right atrial reflex
    • b. responds to systemic venous pressure.
    • c. activates the sympatheic nervous system in response to stretching.
  53. The myogenic regulation response in the kidney to high systemic blood pressure would be.
    costrict afferent arterioles
  54. Which of the following would cause an increase in Na reabsorption at the proximal convoluted tubule.
    None of the above
  55. which of the following is composed of inspiration and expirtion?
  56. The opening and closing of the atrioventricular and semilunar valves is driven by.
    Differences in pressure across the valve
  57. contraction of which of the following muscles in involved in normal expiration?
    None of the above
  58. which of the following is the correct conduction pathway through the heart.
    SA node, AV node, bundle of His, bundle branches, purkinje fibers
  59. what is occurring during ventricular ejection?
    the AV valves are closed and the semilunar valves are open as blood is leaving the ventricles.
  60. During myogenic (local) regulation of glomerular filtration rate, an increase in mean arterial pressure will cause the.
    afferent arterioles to constric and therby maintain a relatively constant glomerular filtration pressure.
  61. How does the sympathetic nervous system decrease glomerular filtration rate?
    stimulates constriciton of both the afferent and efferent arterioles
  62. in diabetes mellitus, why does polyuria occur?
    Hyperglycemia causes increased permeability of the renal tubules to water
  63. Most reabsorption occus in the ........ and is ........
    proximal tubule: not regulated
  64. The respiratory system and the urinary system both have mechanisms of regulating blood pH.
  65. During inspiration, the diaphragm contracts and the aveolar pressure is less than atmospheric pressure; during expiration, the diaphragm relaxes and the alveolar pressure is greater than atmospheric pressure.
  66. In the systemic cierculation, the PO2 of arterial blood exceeds the PO2 of venous blood, while the reverse is true for the pulmonary circulation.