chapter 19 m303 final

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1. Data analysis: 2 key considerations

If you can answer these 2 questions, data analysis will be easy
1) is the variable to be analyzed by itself or in relationship with other variables?

2) What level of measurement was used?
2. •Analysis involving individual
variables is univariate analysis

•Analysis involving multiple
variables is multivariate analysis
• •Is the variable to be analyzed by
• itself or in relationship with other variables?
3. •Nominal and ordinal measures are
referred to as categorical measures

•Interval and ratio measures are
referred to as continuous measures
• •What level of measurement was
• used?
4. A count of the number of cases
that fall into each of the response categories

Uses:
•Communicate the results of a
study via univariate categorical analysis

•Determine the degree of item
nonresponse

•Identify blunders

•Identify outliers

•Determine the empirical
distribution of a variable
•Frequency Analysis
5. ________ are a projection of the range
within which a population parameter will lie at a given level of confidence
based on a statistic obtained from a probabilistic sample
Interval estimates
6. •Interval estimates are a projection of the range
within which a population parameter will lie at a given level of confidence
based on a statistic obtained from a probabilistic sample

•This probability is normally
referred to as the confidence level

•Drawing a probability sample
allows for the appropriate calculation of confidence intervals
• Confidence Intervals for
• Proportions
7. p - sampling error ≤ π ≤ p +
sampling error
• •Confidence intervals are p -
• sampling error ≤ π ≤ p + sampling error

• •p = the relevant proportion
• obtained from the sample

• •sampling error considers the
• desired degree of confidence (z) and the number of valid cases overall for the
• proportion (n) in addition to p

•π = population proportion
8. •Statistics that describe the
distribution of responses on a variable

•The most commonly used are the mean and standard deviation

•The
mean (pronounced x bar) is a measure of central tendency

•The
standard deviation (s) is measure of dispersion
•Descriptive Statistics
9. •A projection of the range within
which a population mean will lie at a given level of confidence
Confidence Intervals for Means
10. •A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of
testing
Hypothesis
11. •The hypothesis that a proposed
result is not true for the population

•Researchers typically attempt to
reject the null hypothesis in favor of some alternative hypothesis
Null Hypothesis (H0)
12. •The hypothesis that a proposed
result is true for the population

•Often, we are interested in the
alternative hypothesis
Alternative Hypothesis (HA):
13. Steps in Hypothesis Testing (6 steps)
Step 1 - Specify Null and Alternative Hypotheses

Step 2 - Choose the Appropriate Test Statistic

Step 3 -  Specify the Significance Level

Step 4 Collect the Data and Compute the Appropriate Test Statistic

Step 5 Determine the Probability under the Null

• Step 6 Compare the Obtained Probability with the Specified Significance Level to Assess the
• Null
14. •A decision
rule is needed to decide whether to
reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis.
They are stated in terms of their _________________.

•The acceptable level of Type I
error selected by the researcher, usually set at 0.05

•Type I error is the probability
of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true for the population
Significance Level (α)
15. •The probability of obtaining a
given result if in fact the null hypothesis were true in the population

•A result is regarded as
statistically significant if this value is less than the chosen significance
level of the test
p-value
16. •A statistical test to determine
whether some observed pattern of frequencies corresponds to an expected pattern
• •Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
• for Frequencies
17. for Comparing Sample Mean Against
a Standard
t-test
18. for Comparing Sample Proportion
Against a Standard
z-test
 Author: jodiesc08 ID: 214969 Card Set: chapter 19 m303 final Updated: 2013-04-22 03:58:38 Tags: m303 final Folders: Description: m303final Show Answers: