chapter 19 m303 final

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chapter 19 m303 final
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  1. Data analysis: 2 key considerations

    If you can answer these 2 questions, data analysis will be easy
    1) is the variable to be analyzed by itself or in relationship with other variables?

    2) What level of measurement was used?
  2. •Analysis involving individual
    variables is univariate analysis

    •Analysis involving multiple
    variables is multivariate analysis
    • •Is the variable to be analyzed by
    • itself or in relationship with other variables?
  3. •Nominal and ordinal measures are
    referred to as categorical measures

    •Interval and ratio measures are
    referred to as continuous measures
    • •What level of measurement was
    • used?
  4. A count of the number of cases
    that fall into each of the response categories

    Uses:
    •Communicate the results of a
    study via univariate categorical analysis

    •Determine the degree of item
    nonresponse

    •Identify blunders

    •Identify outliers

    •Determine the empirical
    distribution of a variable
    •Frequency Analysis
  5. ________ are a projection of the range
    within which a population parameter will lie at a given level of confidence
    based on a statistic obtained from a probabilistic sample
    Interval estimates
  6. •Interval estimates are a projection of the range
    within which a population parameter will lie at a given level of confidence
    based on a statistic obtained from a probabilistic sample

    •This probability is normally
    referred to as the confidence level

    •Drawing a probability sample
    allows for the appropriate calculation of confidence intervals
    • Confidence Intervals for
    • Proportions
  7. p - sampling error ≤ π ≤ p +
    sampling error
    • •Confidence intervals are p -
    • sampling error ≤ π ≤ p + sampling error

    • •p = the relevant proportion
    • obtained from the sample

    • •sampling error considers the
    • desired degree of confidence (z) and the number of valid cases overall for the
    • proportion (n) in addition to p

    •π = population proportion
  8. •Statistics that describe the
    distribution of responses on a variable

    •The most commonly used are the mean and standard deviation

    •The
    mean (pronounced x bar) is a measure of central tendency

    •The
    standard deviation (s) is measure of dispersion
    •Descriptive Statistics
  9. •A projection of the range within
    which a population mean will lie at a given level of confidence
    Confidence Intervals for Means
  10. •A statement about the value of a population parameter developed for the purpose of
    testing
    Hypothesis
  11. •The hypothesis that a proposed
    result is not true for the population

    •Researchers typically attempt to
    reject the null hypothesis in favor of some alternative hypothesis
    Null Hypothesis (H0)
  12. •The hypothesis that a proposed
    result is true for the population

    •Often, we are interested in the
    alternative hypothesis
    Alternative Hypothesis (HA):
  13. Steps in Hypothesis Testing (6 steps)
    Step 1 - Specify Null and Alternative Hypotheses

    Step 2 - Choose the Appropriate Test Statistic

    Step 3 -  Specify the Significance Level

    Step 4 Collect the Data and Compute the Appropriate Test Statistic

    Step 5 Determine the Probability under the Null

    • Step 6 Compare the Obtained Probability with the Specified Significance Level to Assess the
    • Null
  14. •A decision
    rule is needed to decide whether to
    reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis. 
    They are stated in terms of their _________________.

    •The acceptable level of Type I
    error selected by the researcher, usually set at 0.05

    •Type I error is the probability
    of rejecting the null hypothesis when it is actually true for the population
    Significance Level (α)
  15. •The probability of obtaining a
    given result if in fact the null hypothesis were true in the population

    •A result is regarded as
    statistically significant if this value is less than the chosen significance
    level of the test
    p-value
  16. •A statistical test to determine
    whether some observed pattern of frequencies corresponds to an expected pattern
    • •Chi-Square Goodness-of-Fit Test
    • for Frequencies
  17. for Comparing Sample Mean Against
    a Standard
    t-test
  18. for Comparing Sample Proportion
    Against a Standard
    z-test

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