AnSc 311 Final

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

  1. What is the chemical composition of bone?
    • 45% ash
    • 35% organic matter
    • 20% water
  2. What role do osteoblasts play?
    Synth/secretion of proteins to form org. matrix
  3. What are osteocytes?
    • Osteoblasts entrapped within bone matrix
    • Revert back to osteoblasts as bone matrix dissolves
  4. What role do osteoclasts play?
    Resorption of bone - macrophage of bone tissue
  5. What are chondrocytes?
    Cells that form cartilage
  6. What is the periosteum?
    Membrane that lines outer surface of bone
  7. How do bones grow in diameter?
    Deposition of new bone by cells withing the periosteum
  8. What is odontogenesis?
    Tooth development
  9. What are the stages of tooth development?
    • Thickening of oral epithelium, invaginates into mesenchyme
    • Bud stage - mesenchyme condenses, tooth bud formed
    • Cap stage - cell proliferation/differentiation
    • Bell stage - bud takes on diff shape, composition changes
    • Crown stage - calcification
  10. What are the steps of bone remodeling?
    • Resting
    • Activation
    • Resorption
    • Reversal
    • Formation
    • Resting
  11. What 3 hormones regulate calcium in the body?
    • PTH - parathyroid hormone
    • CT - calcitonin
    • Vit D
  12. What role does PTH play in Ca homeostasis?
    • Increase Ca absorption/resorption from bone, GIT, kidneys
    • Increase P resorption from bone
    • Increase synth of vit D3
  13. What role does CT play in Ca homeostasis?
    • Decrease bone resorption
    • Increase renal excretion of Ca
    • Indirectly decrease GI activity
  14. What role does vit D play in Ca homeostasis?
    • Increase GIT Ca absorption
    • Increase bone resorption
  15. What 3 systems regulate pH in the blood stream?
    • Intracellular/extracellular buffers
    • Lungs
    • Kidneys
  16. What 3 proton transport systems are present in the kidney proximal tubule?
    • Na/H exchanger
    • H/ATPase pump
    • H,K/ATPase pump
  17. What are intercalated cells specialized for?
    Acid secretion
  18. What causes respiratory acidosis/alkalosis?
    • Resp Acidosis - build up of CO2 (hold breath)
    • Resp Alkalosis -depletion of CO2 (panting)
  19. What is an example of metabolic acidosis/alkalosis?
    • Met Acidosis - loss of bicarb due to diarrhea
    • Met Alkalosis - Vomiting
  20. What are some processes that are affected by circadian rhythm?
    • Migration
    • Reproduction
    • Sleep/wake cycle
    • Metabolism & Body Temp
    • Locomotor Activity
    • Pheromone Release
  21. What 2 hormones are related to circadian rhythm?
    • Melatonin
    • Prolactin
  22. What is the mammary suspensory system made up of in cows?
    • Medial ligaments - primary support, intermammary groove
    • Lateral ligaments
  23. Image Upload
    • 1. Gland cistern
    • 2. Annular fold
    • 3. Teat cistern
    • 4. Furstenburg's rosette
    • 5. Streak canal
    • 6. Teat meatus
  24. What is the lymph node in the mammary called?
    Supramammary lymph node
  25. What are some characteristics of neonatal metabolism?
    • Limited fat stores
    • Glycogen stores rapidly used up at birth
    • Low gluconeogensis
    • Immuno-naive
    • Low iron
    • Immature GIT
    • High rennin, lactase, & salivary lipase
  26. What factors influence successful passive immunity transfer from dam to calf?
    • Formation of colostrum w/ adequate [IgG] by the dam
    • Ingestion of an adequate mass of IgG by neonate
    • Timely absorption of IgG by neonate
  27. Which breeds have higher failure of passive transfer, Dairy or Beef?
  28. What are bioactives? Give examples.
    Constituents in colostrum and milk w/out nutritive value that have specific physiological actions critical for growth/development.

    Ig, maternal leukocytes, growth factors and hormones, antimicrobials, proteins/peptides, nucleotides, oligosaccarides, vitamins/minerals, FAs
  29. What species is affected by IUGR and what is it?
    • Piglets
    • Intrauterine Growth Restriction
    • Impaired in utero growth
    • Negatively affects SI development/metabolic function and villus hieght/width
  30. What are the different ways heat is exchanged with the environment?
    • Convection - body warms air/water
    • Conduction - body warms surface
    • Radiation - body infrared radiation absorbed by cooler objects
    • Evaporation
  31. What is the integrated response to heat stress?
    • Peripheral vasodilation
    • Increased evaporative cooling
  32. What is the integrated response to cold stress?
    • Peripheral vasoconstriction, piloerection
    • Increased metabolic heat production via shivering/non-shivering thermogenesis
  33. What is the integrated response to fever?
    Elevated body temp dut to increase in thermoregulatory set point
  34. What are the efficiencies of heat inputs?
    • Metabolism - 50% efficient
    • Work (muscle) - 25% efficient
  35. What is the exchange of heat btwn arteries and veins called?
    Countercurrent heat exchange
  36. What vessels regulate blood flow?
  37. How much energy does a almost grown fetus demand?
    10% of cow's E
  38. How much E does a mammary gland demand at peak lactation?
    80% of cow's E
  39. What is homeohesis?
    Process of orchestrated changes to meet the priorities of a physiological state
  40. What happens to digesta in the omasum, abomasum, and SI?
    • Enters omasum high in protein/lipid, low in carbs
    • Omasum concentrates digesta
    • Chemical digestion of proteins by HCl/pepsin in the abomasum
    • Enz dig of peptides in SI, AAs absorbed and enter hepatic portal
  41. How is blood volume and flow affected by lactation?
    • K and Na reqs increase
    • Milk 88% water, so water intake increase critical
    • Kidney reduces water excretion
  42. What role does the liver play in ruminant metabolism?
    • Nutrient partition of carb/protein/fat
    • Hepatic portal circulation drains GIT, delivers nutrients
    • Propionate precursor for hepatic gluconeogensis
    • acetate/butyrate provide E for FA synth
    • Triglyc synth in liver
  43. How do Ionophores affect milk production?
    Increase propionate, decrease acetate = increased milk
  44. What are the first limiting amino acids in milk production?
    Methionine and Lysine
  45. What is galactopoiesis?
    Maintenance of milk yield after lactation is established
  46. What are some galactopoietic hormones?
    • GH
    • Prolactin
    • Thyroid Hormones
    • Adrenal Hormones
    • Insulin
    • Oytocin
  47. What does prolactin do and where is it secreted from?
    • Suppresses IGF-BP5 activity
    • IGF-BP5 promotes apoptosis of mammary ep cells

    Secreted by lactotropes in anterior pituitary
  48. What class does TSH fall under and what is it secreted by?
    • Glycoprotein
    • Thyrotropes
  49. What is ACTH (cortisol) secreted by and what does it stimulate?
    • Corticotropes in anterior pituitary
    • Adrenal glands to synth/secrete glucocorticoids
  50. Where is oxytocin synthesized, where is it secreted from?
    • Hypothalamic neurons
    • Posterior pituitary
  51. What functions does oxytocin have?
    • Milk letdown
    • Uterine smooth muscle contraction
    • Maternal bond/behaviour
    • Milk yield/persistency in cows
  52. What are 3 examples of steriods?
    • Progesterone
    • Estradiol
    • Cortisol
  53. What are the 6 hormones of the anterior pituitary gland?
    • FSH
    • LH
    • GH
    • TSH
    • ACTH
    • Prolactin
  54. What is bioclip?
    • Epidermal growth factor
    • Increases GR during treatment = thin, brittle fibres
Card Set:
AnSc 311 Final
2013-04-22 08:54:25
AnSc 311

Show Answers: