EMNT10

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Author:
ilufyoo
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21501
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EMNT10
Updated:
2010-06-07 16:42:07
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EMNT10
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  1. Zoonotic disease = ?
    (Plague)
    primarily a disease of animals, not humans
  2. Disease triangle (Plague) - Host:
    many animals species. major epidemics related to rats.
  3. Disease triangle (Plague) - Vector:
    • fleas. interation w/flea:
    • feeds on rat w/ high bacteria count, blocking gut, flea continues to pump,
    • in new wounds of new host
    • transmitted in frass
  4. Disease triangle (Plague) - Pathogen:
    • bateria Yersnia pestis.
    • causes disease (plague, black death).
    • untreated disease = septicemic plague
    • lead to infection of lungs = pneumonic plague
  5. 'dance macabre' (Plague)
    intoxication of the nervous system leading to bizarre, erratic movements
  6. children song about (plague)?
    "Ring around the rosey"
  7. etymology: (order mecoptera)
    have long slender wings
  8. common name: (order mecoptera)
    scorpion flies
  9. characters (order mecoptera)
    • adult head with elongated clypeus giving the head a beak.
    • membranous wings.
  10. habits : (order mecoptera)
    • weak fliers
    • feed on dead arthropods (necrophagous)
    • fungi (fungivorous) or predators
    • special mating behavior of nuptial gifts
  11. Etymology: (order trichoptera)
    wings covered with hair-like setae
  12. common name: (order trichoptera)
    caddisflies
  13. characters: (order trichoptera)
    adults have four hairy wings that are held roof-like over back, with chewing mouthparts
  14. habits: (order trichoptera)
    • weak fliers
    • feed on liquids
    • adominal gills
    • live in cold clean water for one year
    • larvae ominivorous (alge)
    • indicator species
  15. Three basic types: (order trichoptera)
    • net-spinners,
    • case-builders
    • free-living species
  16. etymology: (order diptera)
    adults have 2 wings
  17. common name: (order diptera)
    flies
  18. characters: (order diptera)
    • 1 pair of membranous wings.
    • hindwings modified = halteres functions to balance fly
    • mouthparts varied and specialized for liquid diet
  19. characters (order diptera)

    mosquito:
    piercing
  20. characters (order diptera)

    horsefly:
    cutting-sponging
  21. characters (order diptera)

    housefly:
    sponging
  22. characters (order diptera)

    immatures:
    larvae in some but most are maggots
  23. characters (order diptera)

    maggots:
    • no legs
    • 2 caudal spiracles.
    • mandibles modified in hooks
  24. Puparium

    (order diptera)
    pupae in cocoon
  25. habits: (order diptera)
    • excellent flyers.
    • feed on fluids
    • lay eggs in larvae food
  26. habits (order diptera)

    larvae:
    • herbivores, fungivores
    • predators - eat decaying matter (dung, dead flesh)
    • parasitoids
    • ectoparasites
    • endoparasites of vertebrates
  27. Tsetse fly is:

    (order diptera)
    vivparous
  28. Myiasis =

    (order diptera)
    when animals are infested with fly maggots
  29. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    eggs:
    • eggs laid in water, larvae and pupae aquatic
    • breath through anal tubes
  30. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    adults:
    • terrestrial
    • males eat nectar
    • females are blood feeders
  31. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    Disease vector =
    close relationship between insect and pathrogen
  32. family culicidae (mosquitoes)

    malaria ( protozoan ):
    • understand disease cycle,
    • dengue (virus)
    • filariasis (nematode) causes elephantitis
    • yellow fever (virus)
  33. family simuliidae (black flies)

    Larvae:
    • awuatic
    • hand on to siklken net on rocks
  34. family simuliidae (black flies)

    adults:
    • hang around fresh water
    • females are terrible biters (cutting-sponging)
    • can build huge numbers.
  35. family simuliidae (black flies)

    Disease:
    • vector of onchocerciasis (river blindness_
    • nematode that attacks optic nerve
    • now under control
  36. family tabanidae (Horse and deer flies)
    • Pests of livestock.
    • severe biters (cutting sponging)
    • disease: vector of bacteria that cause tularemia (pseudoplague) and anthrax.
  37. family muscidae (house flies)

    larvae:
    larvae in dunb, rotting garbage
  38. family muscidae (house flies)

    adults:
    • (aka musca domestica)
    • feed on bacterial ooze and rotting material
    • with sponging mouthparts
    • F/M feed on blood
    • tsetse fly is viviparous (female lays living larvae that pupate shortly after they are born
  39. family muscidae (house flies)

    disease:
    • Disease transmitters = Not vectors
    • pick up bacteria on tarshi
    • mouthparts and transmit to humans
    • Salmonella, cholera, typhus, dysentery.
    • sleeping sickness in humans, nagana in cattle
  40. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    adults:
    usually metallic blue or green
  41. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    larvae:
    • feed on carrion, manure,
    • living flesh (myiasis) both in animals and humans
  42. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    screwworms:
    controlled with sterile insect technique (SIT)
  43. family calliphoridae ( blow flies)

    Maggots:
    • used in medical treatment to clean necrotic tissue from wounds (= maggot therapy)
    • used in forensic entomology (homoicide investigations)
    • to determine how long a person has been dead and if the body has been moved.
  44. family tephritidae (fruit flies)
    • agricultural pests
    • patterned wings
    • eggs laid in fruit, maggots eat inside
    • contains the mediterranean fruit fly (medfly)
    • Use SIT for control.
  45. Etymology:
    (order hymenoptera)
    membranous wings
  46. common name:
    (order hymenoptera)
    • sawflies
    • wasps
    • bees
    • ants
  47. characters:
    (order hymenoptera)
    • two membranous wings
    • hindwing smaller than forewing
    • good flyers
    • (hamuli hooks) on hind wings that hold wings together
  48. suborder symphyta = sawflies

    (order hymenoptera)
    • abdomen and thorax broadly joined
    • ovipositor saw-like or needle-like for ovipositing in plants
    • larvae are herbivores
    • feed in groups = gregarious
  49. suborde apocrita = wasps , bees, ants

    (order hymenoptera)
    • first abdominal segment fused with metathorax and also constriced ("narrow waist")
    • called petiole
    • female ovipositor modified for pre or stinging
    • mouthpars chewing or modified for nectar feeding.
  50. parasite
    • lives of a single host without killing host
    • multiple attacks can be fatal
  51. parasioid
    special type of parasite that lives on a single host, killing it.
  52. predator
    animal that kills more than 1 host in its lifetime.
  53. parastic wasps
    (Apocrita group)
    • parasites and parasitoids
    • used in biological control (of thrips, aphids, whiteflies, leps)
  54. solitary wasps (Apocrita group)
    • predators
    • females provided paralyzed prey (fresh insects) for solitary offspring
    • ground and aerial nest (made out of mud)
  55. solitary bees
    (Apocrita group)
    • herbivores feeding on pollen and nectar
    • have plumose hairs for collecting pollen
    • females provide pollen and nectar for their solitary offspings
    • nest in wood (carpenter bees)
    • ground
  56. social wasp

    (Apocrita group)
    • predator
    • females provide paralyzed prey
    • cut-up pieces to their offspring
    • aerial nests of mud or paper
    • caste system: dominant females, workers, males
  57. social hornets or yellowjackets
    (Apocrita group)
    • queen is larger than her daughters
    • large insects with a nasty sting
  58. social bees -
    Bumble bees =

    (Apocrita group)
    caste system: queen, workers, males
  59. social bees -

    honey bees =
    (Apocrita group)
    • caste system: queen workers, drones
    • use trophylaxis to pass chemicals through food and quality of food source
    • when honey bees sting, leave stinger, gland, muscles in skin
  60. Africanized honey bee =

    social bees
    (Apocrita group)
    • killer bee
    • venom is less toxic than domestic bees
    • but one AHB sting initiates more sting.
    • kill by massive numbers of stings
    • if attacked, RUN
  61. Ants
    (Apocrita group)
    • most advanced social structure of all insects
    • caste = reproductives, queen minor workers, major workers
    • red imported fire an is a nasty one!
  62. family mutillidae =
    velvet ants
  63. family specidae =
    tarantula hawks
  64. etmology:
    (order coleoptera)
    front wing provides sheath around membranous hind wings and abdomen
  65. common name
    (order coleoptera)
    beetles
  66. characters:
    (order coleoptera)
    • hard forewing (elytra)
    • well-developed pronontum
    • chewing mouthparts
  67. habits:
    (order coleoptera)
    • largest order (40%) in the insecta
    • terrestrial and aquatic and feeding habits
    • most are herbivoroous (including all plant parts)
    • some are fungivorous, scavengers, detritivorousm dung feeders ( coprophagous
  68. ground beetles (family carabidae)
    • mostly black color, shiny with long legs
    • bombardier beetle
    • direct a very hot, noxious chemical from end of their abdomen
  69. darkling beetles (family tenebrionidae)
    • eleodes = emits noxious checmical from abdomen
    • mice eat by shoving abdomen into ground
  70. click beetles (family tenebrionidae)
    • pronotum extends back into points on both sides, specialized structure on the ventral surface of the body
    • allows it to "click"
    • thin larvae called wire worms, can be crop pests
  71. scarab beetles (family scarabeidae)
    • stout, heavy beetles (june beetles, dung, elephant beetle, rhinoceros beetle)
    • omnivorous
    • larvae are white grubs ('C' Shaped) in soil
    • Egyptian times as gods.
  72. ladybird beetles (family coccinellidae)
    • M/F named ladybird beetles
    • spots not related to sex but to species.
    • excellent predators used in agriculture for biological control
    • aggregation pheromones
  73. tiger beetles (family cicindellidae)
    • big eyes
    • slender legs
    • fast, fierce predator
    • dr perrings faviorte insect
  74. predaceous diving beetle (family dyticidae)
    • aquatic beetles breatrh with plastron
    • predators
  75. leaf beetles (family chrysomelidae)
    • antennae long
    • larvae bore wood
    • eucalyptus long-horned borer
  76. snout beetles, veevils
    (family curculionidae)
    • beetles have long snout with mandibles at tip.
    • largest and most economically important family of insects
    • ag pests
  77. blister beetles
    (family meloidae)
    • board head and abdomen, narrow thorax
    • elytra loosely cover abdomen and often are short,
    • exposing part of abdomen
    • produce cantharadin which causes blisters,
    • "spanish fly"
  78. fireflies (family lampyridae)
    • predators
    • light producing organ in abdomen
    • elaborate courtship behavior using light flashes.
    • photuris - females attract Photinus - males to eat them = "femme fatale"
  79. etymology:
    (order strepsiptera)
    • front wing is club-shaped
    • giving appearance of a twisted up wing
  80. common name:
    (order strepsiptera)
    twisted-winged parasites
  81. charcters:
    (order strepsiptera)
    • tiny insects
    • females: without wings eyes antennae head and thorax fused into cephalothorax
    • males: normal body, antennae eyes with forewings club like
    • hindwings are fan-shaped, and functional for flight
  82. habits:
    (order strepsiptera)
    • endoparasitic (internal parasite) of other insects
    • females parasitic throughout life
    • never leaving host body
  83. (order strepsiptera)

    Larvae:
    • sperm is transferred through a "brood passage"
    • eggs mature inside female and hatch as larvae = ovovivipary
    • six-legged larvae = triungulin exit through brood passage to outside of
    • host.
  84. etymology:
    (order lepidoptera)
    wings covered with scales
  85. common name:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • butter flies
    • moths
    • skippers
  86. characters:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • adults 2 pair membranous wings, covered with scales (modified setae)
    • colored by pigments or structral
    • wings held together by overlap - frenulum and hook, or by jugum.
  87. habits:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • nearly all phytophagous ( a few parasitic and predaceous)
    • moths and skippers active at night
    • butterlifes active at day
  88. larvae:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • larvae feeding machines (walking intestine)
    • adults reproducing machine (flying ovaries and testes)
  89. larval feeding ecology:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • most have narrow host range
    • edges of leaves, pit feeders, skeletonizer, leaf miners, stem and wood borers
  90. adaptations to avoid being eaten by predators:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • hide themselves in plant tissue or "tents"
    • crypsis
    • chemical defenses
    • irritating hairs
  91. mate finding:
    (order lepidoptera)
    • territories
    • active searching
    • sight
    • pheromones
  92. long distance migration:
    (order lepidoptera)
    not same individuals who migrated prior season
  93. brush-footed butterflies
    (family nymphalidae)
    • largest family or butterflies
    • common in riverside (painted lady)
  94. milkweed butterflies, includes monarch and queens
    (family danaidae)
    • monarch migration
    • prime example of mimicry
  95. hawk moths, sphinx moths
    (family sphingidae)
    • large heavy body moths
    • mistaken for hummingbirds
    • hornworms
  96. giant silkworms moths
    (family saturniidae
    larges NA mothslarvae with stinging hairs
  97. swallowtails
    (family papillionidae)
    • adults are large brightly colored butterflies
    • larvae with eversible osmeterium
  98. silkworms moths
    (family bombycidae)
    contains species taht produces silk
  99. clearwing moths
    (family sesiidae)
    • wing areas without scales
    • resemble wasps
  100. armyworms, bollworms, cutworms
    (family noctuidae)
    • gray
    • nondescript moths
    • nocturnal
    • severe ag pests
  101. inch-worm moths
    (family geometridae)
    • larvae slender
    • "loop" when they walk
    • commonly caled inchworms

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