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2013-04-22 07:20:56
HON 122

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  1. I.                   The Path to War in Europe (1937-1939)
    • a.      Novemeber 5, 1937: secret conference in Berlin revealed future aims
    •                                                               i.      Germany’s ultimate goal was to conquer living space in east, but first, deal with Austria and Czechoslovakia
    • b.      Ongoing Rearmament
    •                                                               i.      increased rearmament; expenditures on it rose from (1933) 1 billionà30 billion (1939)
  2. Rearmament
    •                                                               i.      new type of warfare: Blitzkrieg or “lightning war”
    • 1.      didn’t want trench warfare and saw that lightning warfare depended on mechanized columns and massive air power to cut across battle lines and kill entire armies
    • 2.      meant quick defeat of enemy
  3. Air force
                                                                  i.      large air force (the Luftwaffe) and tanks and trucksà panzer divisiosn that would lead the Blitzkrieg attack with men numbering 4.5 million 
  4. Union with Austria
    •                                                               i.      France and Brits were passive
    • 1.      Neville chamberlain (Brit prime minister), was a strong advocate of appeasement and believed British survival rested on peace with Germany and told them he wouldn’t oppose their changes as long as they were done peacefully
  5. Hitler movd
    •                                                               i.      Hitler moved on Austria, threatening with invasion
    • 1.      he coerced Austrian chancellor, Kurt von Schuschnigg, into putting Austrian Nazi in charge of government
  6. Marched into Austria
    • a.      they marched unopposed into Ausria on basis of Austrian chancellor’s request for german troops to get law and order
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      next day, Hitler annexed Austria
    • Brits and French did nothingàdisgrace
  7. Czech
                                                                  i.      At first, germans wanted autonomy for the sudentenland, mountainous border of Czechoslovakia home to 3 million ethnic Germans and contained Czechoslovakia’s most important frontier defenses and industrial resources
  8. Seot 15, 1938
    •                                                               i.      Sept 15, 1938: Hitler demanded cessation of Sudentenland to Germany and threatened world war
    • 1.      on paper, Czechs were protected by France; in reality, French would not if British wouldn’t
  9. Brits refused
    • a.      rits refused to do so, and at the Munich Conference, the Brits, French, Germans, and Italians reached agreement that met all of Hitler’s demands
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      German troops could occupy Sudentenland as Czechs did nothing
  10. Munich Conference
    •                                                               i.      Munich Conferecne was Hitler’s high points
    • 1.      when Chamberlain returned to England from Munich, he thought it meant peace since Hitler promised it was his last demand; Chamberlain believed him
  11. Munich confirmed
    •                                                               i.      Munich confirmed Hiterl’s perception that Western democracies were weak and wouldn’t fight as well as his own infallibility; unsatisfied
    • 1.      told his generals to prepare for final liquidation of Czech state
    • a.      occupied Czech lands, while Slovaks declared indepence of Czechs and became Nazi puppetsà Hitler: greatest German of them all
  12. Poland
    •                                                               i.      West finally reacts since Czechs didn’t want union
    •                                                             ii.      Hitler’s aggression showed his promises were worthless
    • 1.      when Hitler demanded return to Germany of Danzig, which was made free by treaty to serve as seaport for Poland, Birts saw danger and offered protection for Poland
  13. At the same time
    • 1.      at the same time, Brits and French, began to negotiate with Soviets, seeing them as only match to Russia (Stalin)
    • a.      alliance wasn’t possible due to distrust of Soviets
  14. Hitler ordered
    •                                                               i.      Hitler ordered the invasion of Poland and negotiated a nonaggression pact with Stalin to prevent alliance against him
    • 1.      secret protocol to treaty created German ad Soviet spheres of influence in e. Europe: Soviets would get some portions like Finalnd, etc. and Germany would get w. Poland and would allow Germany ot attack Poland
  15. SEpt 1
    • a.      Sept 1: German forces invaded Poland;
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      two days later, Brits and French declared war on Germany
    •                                                                                                                                     ii.      two weeks later, Germany’s ally, Soviets, sent troops into Poland