Ubuntu Commands

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Ubuntu Commands
2013-04-24 09:25:21

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  1. sudo killall Xorg
    reboots the whole system
  2. sudo -s
    prompt will change to root@ubuntu:~
  3. dmesg
    read boot messages
  4. hitting tab
    auto completes a command
  5. alias
    make a command do something else or automatically add certain options
  6. script
    The "script" command creates a typescript, or "capture log" of a shell session − it writes a copy ofyour session to a file, including commands you type and their output.
  7. reset
    The reset command re−initializes your current terminal. This can be useful when the text from yourterminal becomes garbled, simply type "reset" and this will fix your terminal.
  8. logout
    Logs out of a terminal, also try CTRL−D.
  9. echo
    A little command that repeats anything you type.

    Also, putting echo before a command renders it harmless.
  10. history or

    history n (where n is number)
    without "n" shows entire history typed in terminal.

    with "n" shows the last n typed commands
  11. CTRL−Z
    key combination is used to stop a process.
  12. CTRL−A and CTRL−E
    These key combinations are used for going to the start and end of the line on the command line. Use CTRL−A to jump to the start of the line, and CTRL−E to jump to the end of the line.
  13. whatis
    Displays a one−line description of what a program does. The string needs to be an exact match,otherwise whatis won't output anything.
  14. uptime
    tells you that this particular PC has been up
  15. uname -srv
    This runs the uname command with three options: -s, -r, and -v (which can be combined as -srv, as this example shows). The -s option causes uname to print the name of the kernel, -r prints the kernel release number,and -v prints the kernel version number.
  16. more
    To read a file, use the more command.

    For example, type more /etc/passwd to read the /etc/passwd file.
  17. ps ax (can use either "a" or "x" or both)
    The ps command takes many options, and you can provide these options without the usual dash prefix. This example uses the a and x options. The "a" option lists all processes that you are running, and the "x" option displays the rest of the processes. The net result is that ps ax prints a list of all processes running on the system.
  18. Ctrl+Alt+F1
    To get to the first virtual console from the GNOME or KDE desktop, press Ctrl+Alt+F1. Press Ctrl+Alt+F2 for the second virtual console, and so on. Each of these virtual consoles is a text screen where you can log in and type Linux commands to perform various tasks. When you’re done, type exit to log out.

    You can use up to six virtual consoles. In most distributions, the seventh one is used for the GUI desktop. To get back to the GUI desktop, press Ctrl+Alt+F7.
  19. grep
    Grep is a command-line utility for searching plain-text data sets for lines matching a regular expression.