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2013-04-22 11:15:27
HON 122

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  1. Nine days before Hitler attacked Poland, he told the generals to be ruthless
    Hitlers early Blitzkrieg. 
    • a.      Hilter’s early Blitzkrieg stunned Europe with speed and efficiency
    •                                                               i.      moved into Poland with 1.5 million troops from two fronts and used panzer divisions supported by airplanes to break through Polish lines and encircle them
  2. Air and ground
    • 1.      air and ground assaults had Stuka dive bombers with sirens
    • 2.      infantry marched in  wth Soviets attacking
    •                                                             ii.      Four weeksà Poland surrendered and divided between Germans and Soviets
  3. Hitler's attack in the west
    •                                                               i.      Hitler confident that he could win, esp. since Brits and French didn’t want to go on offensive due to economic blockade
    • 1.      1930-35: France built fortifications armed with heavy artillery (Maginot Line) along German border and hid
  4. Waged Blitzkrieg
    •                                                               i.      Hitler waged Blitzkrieg against Benmark and Norway
    • 1.      troops dropped all over,driving British out and causing Norway to surrender
  5. Attaacked netherlands
    •                                                               i.      Hitler attacked netherlands, Belgium, and France
    • 1.      Netherlands: 5 days
    • 2.      Dutch bombed and prone to Nazi destruction
    • 3.      Belgium: broke thorugh weak French defensive positions, outflanking Maginot line, reaching English Channel, splitting Allied armies
  6. Main Belgium army
    • a.      main Belgium army surrendered and Brits and French were trapped at Dunkirk
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      german advance stopped and Hitler ordered Luftwaffe to destroy Allied amry on Dunkirk
    • ineffective in bombing Allied forces, and when Hitler ordered advnance again, Brits already rebuit their defenses sufficiently to allow for evacuation of 350k Frennch and Brits= “miracle of Dunkirk
  7. June 5
    •                                                               i.      June 5, Germans launched another offensive into Sourthern Frane
    • 1.      5 days later, Mussolini thought war was over and, wanting spoils, declared war on France and invaded
  8. French
    a.      French couldn’t resist and surrenderedà German armies occupy 3/5 of France while French hero of WWI< Marshal Henri Petain, established authoritarian regime (Vichy France) over remaineder
  9. Allies saw
    •                                                               i.      Allies saw Vichy France as puppet of Nazis and French government-n-exile went ot Britain
    •                                                             ii.      Germany controlled west and c. Europe, but Britain
  10. The Problem of Britain
    •                                                               i.      German victories of Demnark and Norway led to change of government in Britain
    •                                                             ii.      dissatisfaction with appeasement suuprot, Chamberlain, led discontented people to cause his resign; replaced by Winston Churchill as prime minister who believed he would bring victory
  11. Churchill
    • 1.      inspiring; rallied people with speeches
    • Hitler hoped Brits would could be persuaded to make peace so he could fulfill his desire for living space, but, led by Churchill, they refused and Hitler prepared for invasion
  12. Invasion of Britain
    •                                                               i.      Invasion of Britain only possible through air warfare
    • 1.      august 1940: Luftwaffe launced offensive against Brit air and naval abses, harbors, communication centers and war industries
    • Brits fought back, supported by radar system that warned of German attacks
  13. Ultra intelligence
    • a.      Ultra intelligence operation, which broke German military coldes, gave British air force info about specific targets of erman air attacks
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      Brit air foreces still suffered critical losses by end of August and was saved by Hitler’s change of strategy
  14. September
    • 1.      in sept, to retaliate for Brit attack on Berlin, Hitler ordered shift from military tagerts to massive bombing of cities to break British morale
    • 2.      The British rebuilt air strength and hurt Luftwaffe bombers
    • a.      Germany lost Battle of Britainà postponed invasion of Britain
  15. Hitler then pursued
    •                                                               i.      Hitler then pursued Mediterranean strategy, which would involve capture of Egypt and Suez Canal and close Mediterranean to Britsh ships
    • 1.      initial plan was to let Italians defeat British, but this failed when brits defeated Italians
    • 2.      Hitler then sent Germans, but he was more concerned with the living space in the east
  16. Invasion of the Soviet Union
    •                                                               i.      end of July 1940: Hitler prepared for invasion of Soviet Union
    • 1.      didn’t want two front war, but thought Brit was only alive because of Suoviet support (he thought itd be easy)
    • a.      if Soviets smashed, so would Brits
  17. Attack
    •                                                               i.      attack delayed due to problem in Balkans
    •                                                             ii.      Hitler got political cooperation of Hungary, Bulgaria, and Romania; but Mussolini was upset of these gaisn and wanted to extend Intaly influence by attacking Greece
  18. Italians
    1.      Italians unpreparedà invasion stoppedà Hitler pissed because invasion of Greece exposed his southern flank to Brit air bases in Greeceà to compensate, he invaded Yugoslavia and defeated Greeks (6 days)à east to invade Soviet Union
  19. June 22
    •                                                               i.      June 22, 1941: Nazi Germany attacked Soviets (180 divisions, 20 panzer, 8000 tanks) vs. Soviet 160 infantry and 300 divisions
    • 1.      hitler miscalculated
    • 2.      germans advanced and captured 2 millions oldiers; swept through Soviet Union, but Soviets didn’t collapse
  20. Unexpected
    •                                                               i.      unexpected Soviet Resistance and early winter halted Germans
    • 1.      Hitler’s commanders wanted to withdraw till next spring, but Hitler said no to retreat
  21. Soviet counterattack
    • a.      soviet counterattack ended the year for the Nazis
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      germans managed to hold and reestablish orders, but he was defeated, partly because of his declaring war on US