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2013-04-22 11:19:49
HON 122

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  1. US entry
    a.      US entry created coalition that defeated Axis powers after overcoming mutual suspicions
  2. Two factors aided this: 
    • 1.      Hitler’s declaring war on US made it easier for Americans to accept Brit and Soviet contention that the defeat of ermany should be the first priority of the US
    • a.      US increased quanitity of vehicles and arms to send to Brits and Soviets
  3. Two factors aided this:
    1.      tacit agreement of the three chief Allies to stress military operations while ignoring political differences and larger strategic issues concerning postwar settlement
  4. Beginning of 1943
    • a.      Beginning of 1943, Allies aagreed to fight until Axis powers surrendered unconditionally
    •                                                               i.      principle of unconditional surrender might have discouraged dissident Germans and Japanese from overthrowing their governments in order to arrange negotioated peace, it had effect of cementing the Grand Alliance by making it impossible for Hitler to divide foes. 
  5. Defeat
    • a.      Defeat was not in Hitler’s mind, however
    •                                                               i.      Japanese forces advanced into SE Asia and Pacific after Pearl Harbor; Hitler warred against Brits and Soviets
  6. After Brit defeat
    •                                                               i.      After Brit defeat of Italians in N. Africa, Hitler sent General Erwin Rommel
    • 1.      attacked and reached Egyptian frontier, where forced to halt
    • a.      reinforcements in N. Africa enabled the Afrika Korps to break through British defenses in Egypt and advance toward Alexandria
  7. Germans
    •                                                               i.      Germans continuing successin Battle of North Atlantic as subs attacked Allied ships
    • 1.      spring of 1942: renewed German offensive in Soviet Union led to capture of entire Crimea, giving Hitler optimist boost unti fall of 1942, where war was against them
  8. In N. Africa
    • a.      in N. Africa, Brits stopped Rommel’s troops at El Alamein in 1942 and forced them back across desert; by November, they invaded French North Africa and forced Germans and Italians to surrender
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      detection devices enbaeld destruction of German subs
  9. battle of Stalingrad
    •                                                               i.      turning point
    •                                                             ii.      after capture of Crimea, Hitler’s generals wanted him to concentrate on the Caucasus and its oil fields, but Hitler wanted Stalingrad first
    • 1.      German advance on Stalingrad encounted resistence, but he wanted it
  10. Stalin
    • a.      Stalin issued war order called “Not a Step Back”
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      although Germans destroyed much of the city, the Soviet troops used bombed-out buildings and factories as well-fortified defensive positiosn
    • 1.      street conflictsà both sides have severe losses
  11. German Sixth Army
    a.      German Sixth Army finally takes Stalingrad, but Soviets attacked German positiosn north and south and by November 23, they surrounded German forces
  12. Hitler commanded
                                                                  i.      Hitler commanded General Friedrich Paulus to stand firm with Sixth Army and forbade attempts to break out of  encircment but winter and Soviet attacks caused German surrender
  13. Entire German Sixth Army
    1.      entire German Sixth Army of 300,000 men was lost and Hitler knew Germans wouldn’t defeat Soviets