Patho II Exam 5

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Patho II Exam 5
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2013-04-27 16:49:46
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Integumentary Forensics
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Patho II Exam 5
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  1. an inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair folicles
    Acne
  2. the result of an abnormal or profuse production of oil in the sebaceous glands
    Acne
  3. leads to the pores of the skin becoming clogged with sebum
    Acne
  4. carbuncle, furuncle
    Abscesses
  5. in the secondary stage a skin rash and lesions on the mucous membranes form to be the primary symptom
    Syphilis
  6. known as dermatomycoses
    Superficial fungal infections
  7. commonly known as ringworm or tinea
    Superficial fungal infections
  8. these infections are characterized by red, scaly, and itchy lesions
    Superficial fungal infections
  9. tend to localize in certain body areas
    Superficial fungal infections
  10. a fungal infection of the groin area
    tinea cruris
  11. commonly known as "jock itch"
    tinea cruris
  12. a fungal infection of the feet
    tinea pedis
  13. commonly known as athlete's foot
    tinea pedis
  14. inflammation of the skin
    dermatitis
  15. caused by a variety of agents like poison ivy, soaps, fabrics, dyes, formalin
    dermatitis
  16. results when the skin is exposed to agents to which has become sensitized
    contact dermatitis or eczema
  17. inflammatory skin disease beginning on the scalp
    Seborrheic dermatitis
  18. characterized by rounded, irregular lesions covered with yellow or brown-gravy greasy scales
    Seborrheic dermatitis
  19. yellow or brown-gravy greasy scales are caused by an excessive secretion of sebum(oil) from the sebaceous glands
    Seborrheic dermatitis
  20. will spread to the face, neck and eyebrows if not cared for properly
    Seborrheic dermatitis
  21. tuberculosis of the skin
    Lupus vulgaris
  22. characterized by ulcerations that leave scars when healed
    Lupus vulgaris
  23. old age changes in skin
    Senile changes
  24. any nevus (mole) containing melanin
    Melanocytic nevus
  25. Other skin disease or changes (4)
    • 1. Senile changes
    • 2. Melanocytic nevus
    • 3. Malignant melanoma
    • 4. Squamous cell carcinoma's
  26. Postmortem Conditions of Skin Diseases
    • 1. Discolorations
    • 2. Dehydration/dryness/scales
    • 3. Burns
    • 4. Lesions
    • 5. Pigmented or depigmented spots
    • 6. Edema
  27. inflammation of a tonsil
    tonsillitis
  28. a mass of lymphatic tissue found in the very back of the oral cavity
    tonsillitis
  29. usually due to infection by a pyogenic streptococci
    tonsillitis
  30. the enlargement of a lymph node
    lymphadenopathy
  31. caused by a variety of conditions
    lymphadenopathy
  32. may be a sign of serious disease
    lymphadenopathy
  33. inflammation of a lymph node
    lymphadenitis
  34. inflammation of a lymphatic channels or vessels
    lymphangitis
  35. usually occurs secondary to lymphadenitis
    lymphangitis
  36. enlargement of the spleen
    splenomegaly
  37. caused by many, many diseases
    splenomegaly
  38. the biggest danger is that an enlarged spleen is much easier to rupture
    splenomegaly
  39. edema due to an obstruction of the lymphatic vessels
    lymphedema
  40. Postmortem Conditions
    • 1. Edema
    • 2. Emaciation
    • 3. Dehydration
    • 4. Metastasis
  41. Coroner and/or Medical Examiner
    a public official
  42. authority or power to investigate
    • jurisdiction
    • Coroner and/or Medical Examiner
  43. Qualifications of a Coroner and/or Medical Examiner
    physicians, dentists, nurses, funeral directors
  44. an official examination & investigation into the cause, circumstances, and manner of sudden, violent, or unexplained death
    inquest
  45. Types of death with medico-legal potential (5)
    • 1. Injury and death by violence
    • 2. Sudden and/or unexpected death
    • 3. Environmental death (state laws)
    • 4. Health, welfare, and safety
    • 5. Medical litigation
  46. Injury and death by violence (4)
    • 1. missile wounds: gunshot and other projectiles
    • 2. sharp force injury: stabbing and cutting
    • 3. blunt force injury: blows and falls
    • 4. land, water, aircraft accidents
  47. Sudden and/or unexpected death (3)
    • 1. at home
    • 2. hospital
    • 3. not in care of a physician
    •     (variable state laws as to specific care and time limits)
  48. Environmental death (state laws) (3)
    • 1. industrial pollutants
    • 2. pesticides
    • 3. additives
  49. Health, welfare, and safety (3)
    • 1. drug abuse
    • 2. contagious disease (local state laws)
    • 3. cremation permits (special state laws and regulations)
  50. Medical litigation (2)
    • 1. malpractice/negligence
    • 2. insurance claims
  51. performed to demonstrate significant disease processes within the body and their relation to clinical findings versus diagnosis
    clinical autopsy
  52. Forensic autopsy aimed at:
    • 1. absolute identification of the body
    • 2. description of the body & the scene
    • 3. being an unrestricted autopsy with accessory investigations
    •      to prevent future legal actions or allegations
    •       a. biochemical tests (toxicological)
    •       b. microbiological tests
    •       c. radiological tests
  53. Determining cause of death (5)
    • 1. immediate causes
    • 2. contributory causes
    • 3. manner of death
    • 4. mechanism of death
    • 5. recovery of evidentiary information
  54. the pathologic entity responsible for death at the time of the terminal event
    immediate cause(s)
  55. the pathologic entity involved in, but not causing, the terminal event
    contributory cause(s)
  56. how the death occurred
    manner of death
  57. includes the circumstances of death, the investigational information and the cause of death
    manner of death
  58. manner of death (6)
    • 1. natural
    • 2. homicide
    • 3. suicide
    • 4. accident
    • 5. unexplained
    • 6. undetermined
    •         final pronouncement is awaiting test results
  59. an explanation of the sequence of events leading to the death
    mechanism of death
  60. includes the recovery and preservation of evidence
    recovery of evidentiary information
  61. any deviation of the natural continuity of a tissue
    wound
  62. a superficial injury
    abrasion
  63. a scratch or a scrape
    abrasion
  64. a circumscribed removal of the epidermis of the skin or mucous membrane
    abrasion
  65. a circumscribed removal of the epidermis of the skin or mucous membrane
    an excoriation
  66. an excoriation
    a scratch
  67. the escape of blood into the tissue of a living person following a rupture of vessels
    • ecchymosis
    • bruise
  68. a splitting or tearing apart of tissues
    laceration
  69. the loss of tissues by tearing away or tissue that has been torn away
    avulsion
  70. looked at according to appearance and site
    incised wounds
  71. Incised wounds
    • 1. Tenative nick
    •     Hesitation marks
    • 2. Defense wounds
    • 3. Stab
    •     Puncture wounds
  72. multiple, shallow wounds
    • Tenative nick
    • Hesitation marks
  73. usually indicate suicide attempts
    • Tenative nick
    • Hesitation marks
  74. seen on the back of the forearms and/or shoulders
    Defense wounds
  75. may indicate homicide
    Defense wounds
  76. Stab or puncture wounds
    • 1. Through clothing
    • 2. Not through clothing
  77. usually homicidal or accidental
    through clothing
  78. may indicate suicide
    Not through clothing
  79. Wounds and injury by gunshot are classified according to the following
    • 1. Accidental
    • 2. Suicidal
    • 3. Homicidal
    • 4. Types of firearms
    • 5. Entrance wound
    • 6. Exit wounds
  80. may occur in any location
    Accidental
  81. wound may be found anywhere on the body
    Accidental
  82. more likely to be witnesses
    Accidental
  83. gunshot wound to the head
       occurs mostly in males
    Suicidal
  84. gunshot wound to the chest
    slit wrists
        occur more often in females
    Suicidal
  85. wounds to the head, heart, and/or back
    homicidal
  86. usually clean
    • entrance wound
    • powder burns would be found here
    •      especially if close range
  87. range can be determined by examining this wound
    entrance wound
  88. entrance wound range can be determined by examining this wound
    • 1. Contact
    • 2. Close range (up to one yard)
    • 3. Distant
  89. usually messy
    exit wounds
  90. often cause petechia
    electrical injuries
  91. electrical injuries often cause petechia
    due to the rupturing of vessels close to the surface of the skin
  92. may be burn marks on body
    electrical injuries
  93. Thermal injuries
    • 1. Heat exhaustion
    •     Hypothermia
    • 2. Burns
    • 3. Hypothermia
    • 4. Frost bite
  94. due to exposure to excessive heat
    • Heat exhaustion
    • Hypothermia
  95. the local effect of heat
    Burns
  96. Burns
    • 1. Scalds
    • 2. Injury or burns by corrosive poisons
  97. tissue destruction from contact with hot liquids
        ie. metal, oil, water, steam
    Scalds
  98. Injury or burns by corrosive poisons
    • 1. Corrosive acids
    • 2. Corrosive alkalis
    •         most dangerous of the two
  99. due to exposure to excessive cold
    Hypothermia
  100. may cause death from chilling
    Hypothermia
  101. Hypothermia may cause death from chilling
    • 1. Accidental
    • 2. Due to exposure (accidents/diasters)
  102. Accidental
    • occurs in cases of alcoholism
    •     they don't feel the cold
  103. the local effect of cold
    Frost bite
  104. extremities are sacrificed first
    Frost bite
  105. blood stops flowing there to retain the heat for vital organs
    Frost bite
  106. any loss of consciousness due to a deficiency of oxygen
    Asphyxia
  107. Asphyxia
    • 1. Mechanical asphyxia
    • 2. Hanging
    • 3. Strangulation
    • 4. Tramatic
    •     Crush asphyxia
    • 5. Suffocation
  108. mechanical interference around the neck that impedes the access of air to the lungs, interferes with the cerebral circulation, or disturbs vagus nerve action
    mechanical asphyxia
  109. blocks off oxygen to the brain
    mechanical asphyxia
  110. constriction of the neck as a result of suspension in such a manner that all or part of the weight of the body pulls on a ligature
    Hanging
  111. Hanging classified according to the following
    • 1. External signs of hanging
    • 2. Posture and clothing of the victim
    • 3. Accidental (sexual deviation) vs. suicide
    • 4. Types of ligatures
  112. rope burns on the neck
    stretching of the neck
    External signs of hanging
  113. helps to determine whether homicidal or not
    Posture and clothing of the victim
  114. application of pressure to the neck in such a manner that the force acting on the neck is exerted by a ligature only
    Strangulation
  115. Strangulation
    • 1. By ligature
    • 2. Manual
  116. usually occurs in cases of homicide
    By ligature
  117. usually occurs in cases of homicide strangulation
    • 1. cases of sexual assault
    • 2. infanticide (Umbilical cord)
  118. usually accomplished by the strangle-hold
    Manual
  119. compression by weight against a resisting surface
    • Tramatic asphyxia
    • Crush asphyxia
  120. is accidental only
    • Tramatic asphyxia
    • Crush asphyxia
  121. causes intense cyanosis in the upper parts of the body
    • Tramatic asphyxia
    • Crush asphyxia
  122. causes a reproduction of the clothing patterns on the skin
    • Tramatic asphyxia
    • Crush asphyxia
  123. synonymous to asphyxia
    suffocation
  124. this term issued for circumstances other than constriction of the neck
    suffocation
  125. covering the mouth and nose to impede the intake of oxygen
    • smothering
    • suffocation
  126. asphyxia caused by an obstruction within the air passage
    • choking
    • suffocation
  127. the result of submersion or partial submersion in a fluid
    • drowning
    • suffocation
  128. the unexplainable death of healthy babies

         usually occurs between the ages of three weeks to seven months
    Sudden infant death syndrome
  129. anytime there is evidence of improper child rearing practices
    • neglect
    • Maltreatment of children
  130. 1. Sexual abuse
    2. Child battering
    • Physical abuse
    • Maltreatment of children
  131. a repetitive injury of a severe nature, involving wounds, internal injuries, fractures or intracranial hemorrhages
    • Child battering
    • Maltreatment of children
  132. 1. Parental assault
    2. Story does not appear to explain injuries
    3. Suspicion should be reported to authorities (state laws vary)
    • Child battering
    • Maltreatment of children
  133. killing of an infant with consent of the parents(s), family or community
    • Infanticide
    • Maltreatment of children
  134. Maltreatment of children
    • 1. Neglect
    • 2. Physical abuse
    • 3. I nfanticide
  135. the administration of any agent that may chemically produce an injurious of deadly effect
    poisoning
  136. any substance which when taken into the body whether by ingestion, inhalation, injection, or absorption, interferes with normal physiology
    poison
  137. the poisonous matter which certain animals secrete in a state of health
    venom
  138. communicated by a bite or sting
    venom
  139. any poisonous substances from animals or plants
    toxin
  140. the study of poisons and the effects of poisons upon the body
    toxicology
  141. includes a study of antidotes and remedies used to counteract the adverse effects of poisons
    toxicology
  142. A larger, messier gunshot wound is probably what?
    suicide
  143. A smaller, cleaner gunshot wound is probably what?
    homicide
  144. Describe accidental gunshot wounds.
    • 1. may occur in any location
    • 2. wound may be found anywhere on the body
    • 3. more likely to be witnesses
  145. Gunshot wounds to the head, heart and/or back may indicate what?
    homicide
  146. How is manual strangulation accomplished?
    by the strangle-hold
  147. In what four ways are hangings classified?
    • 1. external signs of hanging
    • 2. posture and clothing of the victim
    • 3. accidental (sexual deviation) vs. suicide
    • 4. types of ligatures
  148. In what types of cases is strangulation by ligature a possibility?
    • 1. cases of sexual assault
    • 2. infanticide (umbilical cord)
  149. List the four things a forensic autopsy is aimed to accomplish.
    • 1. absolute identification of the body
    • 2. description of the body & the scene
    • 3. being an unrestricted autopsy with accessory investigations
    • 4. determining caused of death
  150. List the six manners of death.
    • 1. natural
    • 2. homicide
    • 3. suicide
    • 4. accident
    • 5. unexplained
    • 6. undetermined
  151. Stab wounds through clothing usually indicate what?
    • homicide
    • or
    • accidental
  152. What are the external signs of hanging?
    • 1. rope burns on neck
    • 2. stretching of the neck
  153. What area of study includes a look at antidotes and remedies for poisons?
    toxicology
  154. What causes death from chilling?
    hypothermia
  155. What do defense wounds indicate?
    homicide
  156. What do electrical injuries often cause?
    petechia
  157. What do hesitation marks usually indicate?
    suicide
  158. what types of things will traumatic or crush asphyxia cause to happen?
    • 1. intense cyanosis in the upper parts of the body
    • 2. a reproduction of the clothing patterns of the skin
  159. When might child battering be suspected?
    • 1. parental assault
    • 2. story does not appear to explain injuries
  160. Where will powder burns likely be found?
    entrance wound
  161. Who is most likely to self-inflict gunshot wounds to the chest?
    females
  162. Who is most likely to self-inflict gunshot wounds to the head?
    males
  163. Who is most likely to self-inflict slit wrists?
    females
  164. Rounded, irregular lesions covered with yellow or brownish gray greasy scales are indicative of
    what condition?
    Seborrheic dermatitis
  165. What are the postmortem conditions of lymphatic conditions?
    • 1. Edema
    • 2. Emaciation
    • 3. Dehydration
    • 4. Metastasis
  166. What are the postmortem conditions of skin diseases?
    • 1. Discolorations
    • 2. Dehydration/dryness/scales
    • 3. Burns
    • 4. Lesions
    • 5. Pigmented or depigmented spots
    • 6. Edema
  167. What condition is characterized by red, scaly and itchy lesions?
    • dermatomycoses
    • ringworm
    • tinea
  168. What condition is due to an abnormal and profuse production of oil in the sebaceous glands?
    ACNE
  169. What is athlete's foot?
    • tinea pedis
    • fungal infection of the feet
  170. What is caused by a variety of agents like poison ivy, soaps, fabrics, dyes, formalin, etc.?
    dermatitis
  171. What is commonly known as ringworm?
    • tinea
    • dermatomycoses
  172. What is jock itch?
    • tinea cruris
    • fungal infection of the groin area
  173. What is commonly known as tinea?
    dermatomycoses
  174. What is the biggest danger of an enlarged spleen?
    it is much easier to rupture
  175. What lymphatic condition may be a sign of serious disease?
    lymphadenopathy

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