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Every cell in the body must be able to communicate in order to function effectively and maintain homeostasis. List the 4 types of communications.
- Direct Communications
- Paracrine Communications
- Synaptic Communication
- Endocrine Communication
Communication by the exchange of ions and molecules, through gap junctions in the cell membrane. This is a type of communication acts over extremely small distances.
__________ Transmission of impulse where the membranes are fused to one another
Communication also occurs over small distances, but uses chemical messengers that are used to carry information from cell to cell within the same tissue. The concentrations of the chemical messengers are so low that they do not affect neighboring tissues.
Communication through which a neuron, releases a neurotransmitter very close to the target cell at the synapse. The effects are usually short-lived.
Communication involves the release of hormones, produced by specialized cells, into the circulatory system where they are carried to the target cells, tissues or organs. The target cells, tissues or organs have specialized receptor sites to which the hormone must bind before it exerts its effects.
A chemical messenger released by a tissue which is carried in the circulation to reach specific target cells in other tissues around the body
Hormones can be divided into three categories depending upon their structure:
- a. Those derived from amino acids
- b. Peptide hormones
- c. Those derived from lipids
Hormones that are derived from amino acids include
- The thyroid hormones and
Many text include norepinephrine as
chemical and not a hormone
Peptide hormones are formed from peptides, or longer chains of amino acids. Those formed from short chains include
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
Peptide hormones formed from longer chains and are classified as small proteins
Other hormones within the grouping include those formed from an amino acid chain with a carbohydrate molecule attached. They are known as __________ hormones.
This grouping includes
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormones (LH)
Hormones derived from lipids belong to one of two groups, those similar in structure to cholesterol as known as ____________.
Those derived from the essential fatty acid arachidonic acid are called ___________.
- Steroid Hormones
Steroid hormones include
Steroid hormones estrogens, testosterone, as well as glucocorticoid released by the _______ and calcitriol by the _____. They differ from other hormones in that they are transported in the blood bound to ________ rather than as free molecules.
- adrenal gland
- carrier proteins
Act as important paracrine molecules, coordinating cellular activity and enzyme reactions in extracellular fluid.
Prostaglandins, Thromboxanes and Leukotriene
Each hormone has a specialized effect upon the
A hormone alter the function of its target cells by
- target cell, tissue, or organ.
- changing the type, or quantity of certain enzymes or structural proteins within the cell. In this way, a hormone may activate genetic material to cause the production of an enzyme or structural protein that did not previously exist in the cell.
Hormones only have these effects when the target cell has specialized ______ sites for that particular hormone
The stimulus the triggers the secretion of hormones is usually one of the following:
- a. change in the extracellular fluid
- b. secretion or removal of another hormone
- c. release of a neurotransmitter that affects the endocrine gland.
The majority of hormones in the body are controlled by a
negative feedback mechanism
As blood glucose levels ___ following a meal, the production of _____ is stimulated and the blood glucose results in a ___ in the secretion of insulin from the ______.
The hypothalamus AKA ______
- “sweet bread” along with the pancreas
- beneath the thalamus of the brain
- controlling the release of many of the hormones with the body.
The hypothalamus secretes regulatory hormones that control the hormonal activity of the anterior pituitary, so affecting the activity of the
- Thyroid gland
- The cortex of adrenal gland and
- The reproductive organs.
The _______ and ______ work hand-in-hand to regulate many of the organs of the body and thus are often viewed as one even though they are not.
- pituitary glands
The pituitary gland AKA _______ can be considered in two parts
- the posterior pituitary, posterior lobe, pars nervosa or neurohypophysis and
- the anterior pituitary, anterior lobe or adenohypophysis.
Adenohypophysis (AKA) has three divisions;
- anterior lobe or adenohypophysis
- a. pars tuberalis
- b. pars intermedia
- c. pars distalis
Adenohypophysis is formed from a structure called ________, a structure derived from
Neurohypophysis originated from the _________, and in the adult, the posterior
lobe is still connected to the brain by means of the _______. This allows for the production of posterior pituitary hormones to be produced in the hypothalamus and be transported via nerves to the posterior lobe to be stored and later used as needed.
- Rathkes Pouch
- mucous membranes of the embryonic pharynx
- embryonic brain
- pituitary stalk
The posterior pituitary acts as a storage site for two hormones
These are both synthesized in the ________ by specialized secretory neurons and are stored in the _______ prior to release.
- oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) or vasopressin
- posterior pituitary
Effects on the kidneys, causing an increase in the absorption of water by the tubules. This reduces the volume of urine and increases the water retention & volume of blood.
Causes contraction of the smooth muscle of the uterus during labor and stimulates milk production or “let down” at lactation.
Composed of epithelial cells and connective tissue separated by sinusoids of blood.
Precursor to cells (stem cells) that produce the hormones of the anterior lobe.
Are separated on the basis of their staining properties which can be correlated to the hormones that they produce.
- Somatotrophs produce STH
- Lactotrophs produce Prolactin
- FSH gonadotrophs produce FSH
- LH gonadotrophs produce LH
- Thyrotrophs produce TSH
- Corticotrophs produce ACTH
A series of veins that carry blood from the pituitary stalk and the brain to the adenohypophysis of the pituitary gland. These veins break up into small capillaries and actually account for the control of the hormones released by the adenohypophysis
hypothalamic hypophyseal portal system
List the 7 Hormones of the Adenohypophysis:
- somatotropic hormone
- growth hormone.
- adrenocorticotropic hormone
- thyroid stimulating hormone
Follicle stimulating hormone
- Luteinizing hormone
- interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)
- luteotropic hormone
- lactogenic hormone
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (____ or ______) exerts its effect upon the thyroid gland and stimulates the production of the thyroid hormones
- TSH or thyrotropin
- Thyroxine (T4)
- Liothyronine (T3) and
- Calcitonin (thyrocalcitonin).
Thyroid Gland is located in the neck – one lobe on each side near the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. In most mammals the thyroid gland is located on the _____, just caudal to the _____. In cattle, it consists of two laterally placed, somewhat flattened lobes joined by an _______.
Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulates the synthesis of ____ by thyroid gland cells and stimulated the release of thyroid hormones.
Associated with these functions are the accumulation of ________ and formation of _______ within the thyroid gland. There does not appear to be any extra thyroid activity for TSH.
- iodine, organic binding or iodine
The thyroid gland consists of follicles filled with material called ______, the majority of which consists of a protein-iodine complex called ________. C cells (_____) are present in the thyroid gland in addition to the regular follicular cells
- parafollicular cells
C cells produce
- Calcitonin which lowers the blood level of calcium
- Raises Calcium blood level by absorbing Ca from the bone
Thyroglobulin is the parent unit for:
1. Levothyroxine Sodium (tetraiodotyrosine) – T4 Brand Name: ____________
2. Liothyronine Sodium (triiodotyrosine) – T3 Brand Name: __________
- Soloxine and Synthyroid
Iodine in the blood is in the form of _____, but in the thyroid gland it is in the form of
The oxidized form combines with _____ in the synthesis to T3 and T4.
- 1. Iodine or 2. Oxidized Iodine
- tyrosine (aa)
The thyroid gland traps ____ in the ____ and oxidizes it to _____. It is then incorporated into the amino acid, ____, to form ____________. Subsequent coupling of these iodotyrosines form the ____________.
- monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT)
- iodothyronines T3 and T4.
The primary functions of T3 and T4 are:
- a. control of enzymes and proteins for metabolism
- b. maintenance of normal hair growth and skin condition
- c. normal fetal development
Clinical Symptoms of
- bilateral alopecia, anemia, cold, lethargic
- nervous, fatigue, hunger, weight loss
Foods that cause Goiters (hyperthyroglobulin production)
Cabbage, Rutabagas, Turnips
Metabolic Symptoms – of Hypothyroidism (most common)
- mental dullness
- exercise intolerance
- weight gain with no increase in appetite
- cold intolerance
Dermatological Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
- alopecia – bilateral hair loss
- seborrhea – flaky dry or oily
- pyoderma – pus in and under skin
- myxedema – thickening of skin (face)
_______ hypothyroidism is the most common form, occurring in over ___% of cases, and is a result of destruction of the thyroid gland. Because the disease develops so gradually, clinical signs are not noticeable until ___% of the thyroid has been destroyed. The most common symptoms of Primary Hypothyroidism can be summarized into two areas:
- metabolic or dermatologic.
There are three internal diseases that cause bilateral alopecia:
Primary Hypothyroidism usually results in destruction of the thyroid gland and subsequent deficiency of hormones, accounting for more than 95% of the hypothyroid cases. Typically this problems starts at _____ usually but can be seen at _____.
Primary Hypothyroidism Testing
Initial screening test:
Two test are available:
- Thyroxine (T4) may be useful as an initial screening test. If the T4 is in the normal range, then it is unlikely that the patient is hypothyroid.
- RIA-Radioimmunoassay and Equilibrium Dialysis.
Therapy for Hypothyroidism
Name brand thyroxine like Synthyroid or Levothyroxine is the initial step to take in the canine
Thyroid tumors in the cat produce excessive amounts of thyroxine (T4) and the cats
develop the clinical syndrome called ______. Classical signs include
Some cats have _________, a syndrome characterized by signs opposite to classic
presentation for hyperthyroidism, symptoms
- tachycardia, hyperactivity, weight loss, polyphagia, polyuria, and polydipsia.
- apathetic hyperthyroidism
- depression, lethargy and anorexia.
Available Treatments for Hyperthyroidism in Cats include
- 1. Methimazole (Tapazole) – lowers thyroxine by blocking uptake of iodine by thyroid.
- 2. Radioactive Iodine Treatment
- 3. Thyroidectomy - Surgical Removal of the Gland(s)
Most frequent diagnosed endocrine disorder in cats is
Hyperthyroidism in the Cat
Principle: __________ are the major secretory products of the thyroid gland and important hormones at target tissues.
Interpretation: _____________ is the most reliable test to differentiate cats with hyperthyroidism from cats with non-thyroidal diseases. Because as many as 25% of hyperthyroid cats have normal T3 concentrations despite high T4, serum T4 determinations are of greater diagnostic value.
- Thyroxine (T4) and Liothyronine (T3)
- Measurement of random basal serum T4 concentrations
Secretion of adrenocorticotropic hormone (____ or ______) is regulated by _______________ from the hypothalamus.
- ACTH or adrenocortin
- corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH)
ACTH regulates the production of _______ (_____ and ________) and ___________ as well as __________ from the ______ of the adrenal gland.
- cortisol; corticosterone
- sex hormones; cortex
Name the Two parts of the Adrenal Gland
- a. adrenal cortex
- b. adrenal medulla
Name the 4 parts of the Adrenal Cortex:
- a. capsule
- b. zona glomerulosa – the outermost layer thought to be responsible for the secretion of mineralocorticoids.
- c. zona fasiculata – middle layer most responsible for secretion of the glucocorticoids although the reticularis does contribute.
- d. zona reticularis – inner layer is the zone for sex steroids although total quantity is less than 5%
Name restricted to the hormones produced by the zona fasiculata of the adrenal cortex.
- Dexamethasone, Prednisone, etc.
Hormone secreted in response to the production of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
- Luteinizing hormone (LH)
FSH acts on female animals
In the male animal it promotes the
- Stimulates the development and maturation of the ovarian follicles
- maturation of sperm
Luteinizing hormone in the female
In the male it regulates production of the hormone
- stimulates ovulation and development of the corpus luteum
- testosterone by the interstitial cells of Leydig in the testes.
In the male hormone is sometimes referred to as ________ instead of __________.
- interstitial cell stimulation hormone (ICSH)
- luteinizing hormone
The function of the hormone Prolactin (PRL)
- 1) stimulates the development of the mammary glands of the pregnant female animal
- 2) an active role in lactation following parturition.
What two hypothalamic hormones that control prolactin secretion.
- 1) prolactin releasing factor (PRF) and
- 2) prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH)
Growth hormone (__, or _____) plays a critical role in all _______. It regulates the production of ______ by cells and controls the ____ used within the body. During times of poor food supply it will stimulate the utilization of ____ as an energy source in order that essential glucose can be conserved from the nervous system. It is particularly important in young, growing animals.
- GH; somatotropin
- cellular growth
Growth hormone production is regulated by
- 1) growth hormone releasing hormone (GH-RH) and
- 2) growth hormone inhibiting hormone (GH-IH) produced by the hypothalamus
Hormone produced by the anterior pituitary is the former intermediate lobe hormone
It is particularly important in the production of skin pigments in
Its target cells are the ______ within the epidermis of the skin and it stimulates these to produce a skin pigment known as ____.
- melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
- fish, amphibia, reptiles and many mammals, although not in primates
- melanocytes; melanin
The secretion of MSH is regulated by
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone inhibiting hormone (MSH-IH), produced by the hypothalamus
Pineal Gland, AKA lies in the posterior part of the third ventricle of the brain. The pineal gland contains
- “third eye”
- neurons, neuroglia, and specialized secretory cells called pinealocytes
There are two parathyroid glands in the cat and dog that lie close to the thyroid gland. Endocrine cells called ________ produce parathyroid hormone (___ or __________) in response to falling levels of calcium ions in the blood. PTH secretion causes an increase in the circulating calcium ion concentration by a certain of events in a specific order
- Chief Cells
- PTH; parathormone
4 PTH Events of Increasing Calcium
- 1. PTH stimulates the activity of osteoclasts within the bone that causes a breakdown of the bone matrix.
- 2. Inhibites Osteoblast activity, with the effect of reducing the rate of calcium ion deposition.
- 3. Urinary secretion of calcium ions is greatly reduced.
- 4. PTH stimulates the secretion of calcitrol by the kidney: this increases the efficiency with which calcium is absorbed from the digestive tract.
A condition known as hyperparathyroidism may occasionally be seen. It can occur in one of three ways:
- a. Neoplasia of the parathyroid gland
- b. Secondary indirect hyperparathyroidism
- c. Secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism
Neoplasia of the parathyroid gland can cause ___________________.
- over-production of PTH
- demineralization of bone and may cause the bones to weaken and fracture
Secondary indirect hyperparathyroidism can be seen in cases of ________________,
resulting in Ca loss. Body attempts to maintain level of Ca by absorbing more from the bone resulting in _____________
- chronic renal failure
- rubbery like bones, “Rubber Jaw
Secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is not frequent today but can occur
when dog is feed meat only. Meat is low in Ca levels for dogs so the dog adjust with over-production of PTH
T4 & T3 have very similar effects, regulating ______________ via the ___________and the production of ______.
- cellular metabolism
Calcitonin assists with regulation of _________ in the blood and is secreted when there is an
- calcium ion concentration
- increase in the concentration of calcium ions above the threshold level
Calcitonin’s Effect is Opposite to the effect of ____ , it causes
It is also thought to be important in the regulation of bone growth in young animals and in maintaining the balance of calcium ions between bitch and fetus during pregnancy
- a fall in the calcium ion concentration by inhibiting osteoclast activity in bone (thereby increasing bone deposition) and by promoting the secretion of calcium ions by the kidney in the urine.
The thymus (AKA) is located in the
In newborn animals it is quite large, although its size decreases with age. It produces a hormone called _______ that promotes the development and maturation of ___________. In this way it is thought to be a major contributing factor to the immune response in the young animal and its deterioration with age may account for the fact that animals become more prone to disease as they grow older
- “sweet bread”
- mediastinum of the thorax
The walls of the atria contain endocrine cells that secrete a hormone, ________, when over-stretched. Over-stretching of the atria walls occurs when the circulating blood volume is
- atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP)
- too high
ANP reduces blood volume by
- 1. The secretion of sodium ions, and water is increased by the kidney.
- 2. Suppression of thirst.
- 3. The release of renin is suppressed, along with ADH and aldosterone.
- 4. Angiotensin II and norepinephrine cause vasoconstriction of the peripheral blood vessels.
- vasodilation which helps to reduce blood pressure.
The kidneys secrete two hormones
calcitriol and erythropoietin
PTH stimulates the production of ______ (from ___________), which increases the efficiency of absorption of
- cholecalciferol or vitamin D3
- calcium and phosphorus from the digestive tract.
Thought to have effects on muscle contraction, insulin release, and secretion of testosterone, although these are not yet fully understood
Released by the kidney when circulating blood oxygen levels are low. It stimulates the bone marrow of long bones to increase the rate of production of red blood cells in an attempt to increase the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. It has recently become a substance that is used by some athletes to enhance their performance, although its use is banned.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland called the cortex produces more than ___ different hormones which are all _____. They are all carried in the circulation bound to carrier proteins and consequently have a longer duration of action than other hormones. These hormones affect the genes of cells that control the production of ____. Therefore their overall effects are upon _____ as a whole.
- cellular metabolism
Mineralocorticoids come from the ________ and represented by ______, contributes to the regulation of _________within the body, primarily sodium and potassium
- zona glomerulosa
The release of aldosterone is triggered by
Aldosterone is then secreted in order to conserve sodium ions within the body and excrete potassium ions.
- 1. a fall in the levels of sodium ions in the circulation below the threshold level
- 2. a fall in blood volume or blood pressure, or
- 3. a rise in potassium ions in the extracellular fluid
- conserve sodium ions within the body and excrete potassium ions.
Glucocorticoids come from the
glucocorticoids such as _________ are secreted at times of ____. They help to spare
glucose by mobilizing other sources of energy such as amino acids and lipids. This is particularly important during the resistance period of the stress response. Once the initial
“fight or flight” response has occurred (mediated primarily by ________), the stressor may still be present.
- zona fasciculata and zona reticularis
- cortisol and corticosterone
- epinephrine and nor-epinephrine
Hyperadrenocorticism is a condition known as _________. The adrenal cortices produces excessive amount of glucocorticoids, in particular cortisol, either due to the
- Cushing’s disease (syndrome)
- over-production of ACTH from the pituitary gland or due to the production of excess cortisol as a consequence of neoplasia of the adrenal gland
Hyperadrenocorticism Symptoms may include
- hair loss
- pot belly and
- thinning of the skin
4 Causes of Cushing's Disease
- 1. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia due to pituitary stimulation
- 2. Unilateral functional neoplasm
- 3. Secondary adrenal secretions due to pituitary stimulation, either pituitary hyperplasia or functional pituitary tumor.
- 4. Prolong administration of large amounts of adrenocorticosteroids – Iatrogenically Induced Cushing‟s Disease.
85-90% of all Cushing disease is due to
10% to 15% being from
- pituitary tumors
- adrenal tumors
How To Test for Cushing‟s Syndrome
Note: the half life for dex. Is ___ hours. In
cushings dogs it is only ___ hours
- 1. ACTH suppression – ok for humans but not for animals.
- 2. Low Dose Dexamethasone Screening Test (LDDS) Give 0.01 – 0.15 mg/kg of dex. Iv. If the dog has Cushing’s, then cortisol levels from the adrenal gland will remain high and not be suppressed. If does not have Cushing’s then the cortisol levels will subside immediately.
- 30; 4
Treatment Cushing’s Disease
Lysodren (Op, DDD), Anipryl, Vetoryl
- Selegiline Hydrochloride (HCl)
Explain why you give Anipryl
As the animal ages, MAOB (monoamine oxidase –type B) production is increased and this results in a decrease of the catacholamine called dopamine, which in turn results in hyperadrenocortism. Anipryl is given to the patient inhibiting the production of MAOB. Dopamine metabolism is restored and clinical signs of Cushing’s is minimized.
Vetoryl (________) – this is an enzyme blocker of steroids synthesis acting specifically on the _________ to prevent the production of __________ or to prevent their release
- zona fasciculata
Anipryl is ________ and is used for
Enacard is _________ and is an ________ and is used to treat _____________
- Selegiline Hydrochloride
- Hyperadrenalcortisim or Cushing’s Disease
- Enalapril Maleate
- ACE Inhibitor
- Congestive Heart Failure
Hypoadrenocorticism is a condition known as ________. It occurs when the adrenal cortices cannot produce adequate levels of ________, resulting in an increase in the ____________
- Addison’s disease
- retention of potassium in the circulation
- vomiting, diarrhea, lethargy and weight loss with general weakness, progressing to collapse, and, in severe cases, coma and death
Adrenal Sex Steroids
________ and _________ are also produced in the __________ in small quantities by the adrenal cortex in both male and female animals. Some are converted into ____, again in both the male and the female
through biochemical means
- Androgens; testosterone
- zona reticularis
The adrenal medulla is stimulated by neurons from the sympathetic nervous system to produce __________ These are traditionally thought of as the “fight and flight” hormones, preparing the animal to meet emergencies. They cause an
Blood glucose levels increase due to the increased breakdown of glycogen and blood vessels supplying skeletal muscle are dilated. All these mechanism enable emergency reaction.
- epinephrine and nor-epinephrine.
- increase in heart rate, blood pressure, and rate and depth of respiration.
The ________ function is through the secretion of hormones (I.e. insulin, glucagon, etc.),
The ______function via the secretion of an enzyme-rich fluid into the digestive tract (I.e. lipase, amylase, and trypsin).
Only 1 % of pancreatic cells are endocrine in function and these care called ________. They contain _____ types of cells that secrete different hormones.
Alpha Cells secrete a hormone called ____. This causes an increase in the blood glucose levels by stimulating the breakdown of ____ in _________. It is secreted in response to a fall in blood glucose which is detected by the alpha cells themselve
- muscle and the liver
Beta Cells secrete ______ in response to a rise in blood glucose.
Insulin promotes the
- 1. uptake of glucose by cells and
- 2. conversion of glucose into glycogen by the liver and muscle tissue.
Delta Cells produce a hormone called _____, which is secreted in response to peaks of _____ or ______ production suppressing their release, thereby avoiding dramatic “swings” in the levels of blood glucose.
This hormone also acts to
- insulin; glucagon
- slow the digestive process by reducing the speed with which food moves along the digestive tract and decreasing the rate of enzyme secretion
F cells of the islets produce a hormone called ___________. It is thought to affect the production of some of the pancreatic digestive enzymes and inhibit the contraction of the gall bladder, although this is an area that requires much more research before its precise function can be determined
Associated with the inability of an animal to produce adequate amounts of Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) also called Vasopressin, the hormone that causes retention of water within the body. Consequently, animals with this type of diabetes cannot control the amount of water secreted in the urine, and produce copious quantities of dilute urine
Diabetes mellitus is caused by the
As a consequence, the animal cannot regulate its blood glucose levels, which rise beyond the renal threshold resulting in glucose appearing in the urine.
inability to produce insulin or decreased sensitivity of the insulin receptors in the pancreas
Diabetes Mellitus can be treated by the injection of _________ at regular intervals to help to reduce glucose levels to within normal ranges.
MALE - In the male animal, following puberty, the testes produce two hormones, ____________. The predominant hormone and is secreted by cells of the testis called the ____________. The function of the testosterone is to
- testosterone, and estrogen
- interstitial cells of Leydig
- develop and maintain the production of viable spermatozoa
- to maintain the secretory cells of the reproductive tract, and to determine male secondary sexual characteristics such as increased musculature, and male behaviors such as territorial scent marking
Male Gonads - Estrogens are produced in much smaller quantities by the _________ of the testis and contribute towards the
- Sertoli cells
- maturation of the spermatozoa
Tumors of the Sertoli cells may develop causing “feminization” of the male dog. This may cause an increase in
- nipple size
- a soft pendulous prepuce and
- a soft “puppy-type” coat.
The secretion of testosterone in the male is controlled by ____ or _____ from the anterior pituitary gland. The hormone called _____, produced by the testis and ovary,has a negative feedback upon the production of ____ from the anterior pituitaryin both the male and the female animal
______ are produced by the developing cells of the follicle, prior to ovulation. This is under the direct control of the anterior
pituitary hormone ____. This hormone acts to support the
- maturation of the oocyte and prepare the reproductive tract for mating and conception
Following ovulation (which is triggered by a surge in the production of ___ from the
anterior pituitary), ________ is produced by the corpus luteum of the ovary.
Progesterone is produced by the ______ of the ____. This helps to
- corpus luteum; ovary
- sustain pregnancy by ensuring that the uterus is maintained in a suitable condition to support a developing embryo.
A third hormone is produced by the female during pregnancy in the ________,
_______ and ______. The hormone is
- corpus luteum; placenta; uterus
Function of Relaxin
Help to prepare the body of the female for the birth process. It causes of the joints between the bones of the pubic symphysis, thereby allowing a degree of laxity. It also contributes towards the development of mammary tissue.
During the early stages of pregnancy relaxin production is stimulated by ___ from the anterior pituitary gland. However, as the pregnancy progresses, additional stimulation is received from __________, which is produced by the _________.
- chorionic gonadotropin
A peptide secreted by the left ventricle in response to the left ventricle wall stretch or stress.
Diagnostic test for heart failure in domestic animals
- Canine test= ANTECH (0-900 normal)
- Cat and Dog = IDEXX (above 1800 pt in heart failure)
Stress triad are
neutrophilia; lymphopenia, eosinopenia
2 other ways to express the term mineral
Ability to burn fat, slow down the heart, slow down mental function is the definition of
When you have a tumor on a gland 2 things will happen
- The gland produces no hormones
- The gland produces excess hormones
What artery is the main contributor to the thyroid gland?
Steroids that breakdown tissue are
Steroids that build up tissue are
Atrophic hormone acts on
Only organ with receptors for that hormone