cardiac drug hawley

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cardiac drug hawley
2013-04-22 15:12:42

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  1. ACE inhibitors (-pril)
    Prevents conversion of angiotensin I to II,  preventing major vasoconstriction; also has amild diuretic effect R/T aldosterone

    for HTN Reduce mortality & improve LV dysfunction in post MI pt.Heart failure

    side effect Dry, hacking cough; orthostatic hypotension
  2. Adenosine
    • “chemical defibrillator,” interrupts or slowsrapid, chaotic electrical conduction pathways; asystole 10-15 seconds
    • For Convert SVT to sinus rhythm

    side effects Flushing, chest pain, asystole, near death experience
  3. Amiodarone
  4. Antiarrhythmic
    • FOR Ventricular tachycardia/fibrillationAlso used with A-fib
    • Side effect Hypotension
  5. Aspirin
    Blocks platelet aggregation

    FOR ACS given to anyone with S/S of angina/ischemic injuryReduces mortality

    Side effect Bleeding precaution
  6. Atropine
    • Parasympatholytic (increase conduction & thus HR by   inhibiting acetylcholine)
    • For Primary drug used for symptomatic bradycardias (SB,   junctional, heart blocks, idioventricular)AsystolePEA

    Side effect Dry mouth, urinary retention, tachycardia, dilates pupils
  7. Beta blockers (-lol)Propanolol (Inderal)
    Negative inotropicDecreases HR and contractility.  Puts the heart muscle to sleepBronchoconstricts

    For ACS pts to reduce angina& reduce incident of           VFSlow conduction in SVTEmergent antihypertensive

    Side effect Impotence (*noncompliance issue)
  8. Calcium Chanel Blockers (CCB)Verapamil Diltizem (Cardizem)
    • Relaxes smooth muscle to decrease BP, slows HR via the   conduction system suppression

    For Slow SVT & rapid atrial fib/flutterAntianginal therapy 

    Side effect Hypotension, bradycardia, heart block, CHF
  9. Calcium Chloride
    Replaces CaBinds K+ 

    For Known or suspect hyperkalemiaIonized hypocalcemiaAntidote for CCB
  10. Digoxin (Lanoxin)
    • Positive inotropic, negative chronotropic (decreased HR)

    For Rapid atrial fibrillation, CHF, SVT

    Side effect Decreased HR, Toxicity -N/V, arrhythmiasLoss of appetiteColor changes in field of vision (green halos-textbook)
  11. Dobutamine (Dobutrex)
  12. Positive inotropic, beta selective (no effect on HR or   blood vessels)
    For To increase BP in CHF when no shock evident (after fluid   therapy)
  13. Dopamine
    Depends on dose:Low- 1-5 mcg/kg/min-renal &   messenteric artery vasodilationModerate dose- 5-10   mcg/kg/min—loose the low dose effect instead beta  effects (increase HR & contractility) High dose-10-20   mcg/kg/min-beta & alpha    effects (vasoconstriction)

    For   Low dose Renal perfusion(controversial);Mod & High dose Used for hypotensionTo increase HR

    Side effect Tachycardia, hypotension, palpitations, sloughing of skin   if infiltrates peripherally
  14. Epinephrine (Adrenaline)
    Peripheral vasoconstriction, increase BP & HR

    For Cardiac arrest; V-fib/V-tach, asystole, bradycardias &   PEA; severe hypotensionAnaphylaxis reaction-bronchospasms

    Side effect Can potentiate myocardial ischemia
  15. Fibrinolytics/Thrombolytics (tPA- Alteplase, Streptokinase)
    Dissolves clots Clot buster

    FOR AMI <12 hours from onset, Ischemic StrokeHave a window of opportunity  Timing is important

    Side effects Bleeding anywhere, arrhythmiasMost significant bleeds are intracerebral bleeds because   they are life threatening
  16. Furosemide (Lasix)
    Loop diuretic

    For Pulmonary edema, HTN, renal or liver disease

    Side effect Hypokalemia, dehydration, arrhythmias, decreased BP
  17. Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa Inhibitor
    Inhibit platelet aggregation

    For ACS –NonSTEMI or unstable angina possibly with planned PCI

    Side effect Recent active bleeding or disorder Thrombocytopenia
  18. Heparin (unfractionated
    Prevent clots from forming

    For Prophylaxis and treatment of thrombosis and embolism. 

    Side effects Contra in recent active bleeding, surgery or bleeding   disorders, Heparin Induced Thrombocytopenia (HIT)
  19. Lovenox (LMWH)
    • Prevent clots from forming

    For ACS-NonSTEMI or unstable anginaPrevent DVTs

    Side effect Hemorrhage is complication
  20. Lidocaine
    Suppresses ventricular arrhythmias by decreasing   automaticityNumbs the irritated ventricular electrical cell(s)

    For Common drug used to treat ventricular irritability like   PVCs, VT, & V-fib

    Side effect Toxicity-Neuro changes—drowsiness, disorientation,   decreased hearing, slurred speech, heavy tongue, SEIZURES
  21. Magnesium sulfate—electrolyte
    Antiarrhythmic Anticonvulsant

    For Treat hypomagnesium which can cause arrhythmias &   sudden cardiac deathTx seizures R/T preeclampsia and eclampsia

    Side effect Rare toxicity—flushing, sweating mild bradycardia,   decreased BP
  22. Morphine sulfate
    Opioid analgesic, vasodilator

    For Chest pain

    Side effect Hypotension, change in LOC, respiratory depression
  23. Narcan
    Reverse resp depression & sedative effects

    For Resp & neuro depression D/T opiate overdose

    Side effect May not outlast effect of narcotic  Recurrent resp depression
  24. Nitroglycerin (NTG)

    For   Antianginal, MI, HTN, CHF Lowers blood pressure

    Side effect Severe headache, hypotension
  25. Nitroprusside (Nipride)
    Peripheral vasodilator

    For Lowers blood pressureHTN emergencyReduce afterload in HF

    Side effect HA, N/V
  26. Norepinephrine (Levophed)
    • Potent vasoconstrictor

    For Severe cardiogenic shock or significant hypotension 

    Side effect Arrhythmia
  27. Oxygen
    Enrich blood with O2

    For Any emergency, SOB, CP, stroke or hypoxemia

    Side effect Caution in COPD pts D/T hypoxic resp drive
  28. Plavix (Clopidogrel)
    Platelet aggregation inhibitor

    For Decreases risk of strokes, MIs and vessel occlusions   (stents)

    Side effect Bleeding precautions
  29. Sodium bicarbonate—electrolyte
    Alkaline agent

    For Management of metabolic acidosisHyperkalemia

    Side effect Edema, sodium & water retention, alkalosis,   hypernatremia, hypokalemia
  30. Vasopressin
    Potent vasoconstrictorAlso an antidiuretic hormone

    For VF, asystole, PEA, septic shockDiabetes InsipidusGI bleeding/varicies