Ornithology

Card Set Information

Author:
lucashall
ID:
215142
Filename:
Ornithology
Updated:
2013-04-22 19:38:07
Tags:
Final
Folders:

Description:
Final exam
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user lucashall on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. What changes over annual cycles?
    Appearance

    Physiology

    Behavior
  2. 3 places to put excess energy
    Reproduction

    Molt

    Migration
  3. Typical cycle of a migratory bird
    Overwintering →

    Vernal migration →

    Breeding →

    Molt →

    Autumnal migration →

    Overwintering
  4. Typical cycle of non-migratory bird
    Breeding = mate in breeding condition, plenty of food

    Molting = No mate (or not in condition), not enough food, young independent
  5. Typical annual cycle in the tropics
    Cycle matches the availability of food

    Breeding/parental care occur throughout high food availability

    Molting/dispersal occur when the availability of food decreases
  6. How are annual cycles regulated (set)?
    Biological clock & general patterns

    Photoperiod & social cues

    Environmental & social cues
  7. Light deprivation studies
    Constant dim light = shift to a 23 hr cycle by chaffinches unless stimulated by 24-hr cycle

    Longer day lengths = ↑ size of testes in juncos
  8. Atypical examples of annual cycles
    Kingfisher - low water during summer--late hatch

    Rufous collared sparrow - lives in tropics; 2 breeding seasons/yr based on wet/dry patterns

    Sooty tern - 2 breeding seasons/yr, but only for birds that failed first breeding season
  9. Origin of migration
    Day length

    Temperature

    Food

    Habitat
  10. Why migrate?
    Avoid seasons and areas w/ ↓ resources

    Capitalize on ↑ resource rich areas and seasons
  11. Types of orientation during navigation
    • Sun-Azimuth: orient with sun, change hourly
    • Skylight polarization: indicates sunset
    • Star Compass: restlessness, orientation
    • East-West Time Shifts: change in sunrise time
    • Magnetic Compass: use Earth's m-field
  12. Different navigation strategies
    • Gender
    • Leapfrog Effect
    • Timing
    • Type of Flight
    • Altitude (Songbirds < 5000 ft, most below 2500 ft; Waterfowl and shorebirds 10,000-20,000 ft.)
    • Fat reserves
  13. Navigation factors
    Experience + orientation ability

    Geographic features

    Local & broad scale
  14. Flyways & leading lines - where?
    • Pacific
    • Central
    • Mississippi
    • Atlantic
  15. Spring migration - key concepts
    • Respond to longer days and warmer temperatures
    • Long distances, fast northward push, may not wait for favorable weather
    • Males typically come first
    • ‘Reverse migrations’ common
    • Smaller in scale due to winter mortality
  16. Fall migration - key concepts
    • Respond to shorter days and wintery weather, cold clear nights
    • Protracted - long stopovers
    • Birds in no hurry, more likely to wait for favorable conditions
    • Larger in volume due to young of the year
  17. Flyways vs leading lines (types of birds associated with each)
    • Flyways - ducks, shorebirds
    • Leading lines - raptors
  18. Causes and issues related to fallout
    • Seasonal and meteorological forces 
    • Downed grebes in parking lots
  19. What is the bottom line of breeding and 2 ways that it is accomplished
    • Bottom line: pass your genes on
    • 2 ways: mating; kin selection
  20. 2 hypotheses for elaborate plumage
    • Good Genes (Handicap, Male health)
    • Arbitrary choice (Runaway selection)
  21. Differential investment in offspring (male vs female)
    Female kiwis = large eggs proportional to body size
  22. Monogamy
    • 92% of birds
    • Male help necessary for raising young
    • Males cannot monopolize resources for extra mates
  23. Polygyny
    • 2% of birds
    • Parental care by female
    • Patchy environments
    • Young often precocial
  24. Polyandry
    • <1% of birds
    • Gruiformes & Charadriiformes
    • Males incubate and care for young
  25. Promiscuity
    • 6% of birds
    • Indiscriminate sexual relations
  26. Odd examples of breeding
    • Ruffs
    • “Faeders” - combine feminine and masculine behaviors
    • Testes 2.5 x the size of normal males
  27. Frequency of Extra Pair Copulation (EPCs)
    • 0-50% of young are from EPCs
    • 10-25% of songbirds
  28. Motivations for Extra Pair Copulations
    • Males - increase fitness, future mates, fertility insurance
    • Females - fertility insurance, genetic diversity, resource access
  29. Purpose of nest
    Protection from predators and elements
  30. Clutch sizes
    • Vary, but most are from 2-4 eggs
    • Eggs are costly to produce and care for
  31. Egg structure
  32. 4 main components of egg
    • Shell: protection, gas exchange 
    • Shell membranes: bacteria shield, prevent dessication
    • Albumen: shock absorber
    • Yolk: energy supply
  33. Why are eggs differing colors (specifically reason for bright blue color)?
    • Crypsis
    • Biliverdin in females = blue color
    • ↑ blue = ↑ provisioning rates
  34. Conspecific brood parasitism
    • Common in ducks
    • Common goldeneye: mean r = 0.13 (first cousins)
  35. Obligate parasitism
    • Independently evolved ≥ 7 times
    • > 90 species (cowbirds, cuckoos)
  36. Adaptations of obligate nest parasites
    • Egg mimicry
    • Hard-shelled eggs
    • Relatively small eggs
    • Disposal of eggs
    • Mafia hypothesis
  37. Definition of a population
    Group of interbreeding species that live in the same area and have normal patterns of migration and dispersal
  38. BIDE factors
    Birth + immigration = ↑ pop. size

    Death + emigration = ↓ pop. size
  39. Lambda
    • λ = (1 + births + immigration - deaths - emigration)
    • Geometric growth (or decline) of a population over a finite time interval
  40. What are models?
    Quantitative generalizations of nature
  41. Definition of a community
    Coexisting groups of species
  42. Rarity
    • Most species are rare
    • Few are abundant
  43. Niche vs. Neutral theory
    • Niche: ecologically similar species have non-overlapping niches
    • Nuetral: ecologically similar species have overlapping niches
  44. Island Biogeography
    Species richness is a function of "island" area and distance from "mainland"
  45. Extinction
    Extinction rate ↑ over last 400 yrs

    5 mass extinctions

    Currently in 6th mass extinction event
  46. Current conservation status of birds (i.e. extinct, threatened, etc.)
    • Extinct: 131 species (mostly islands)
    • Endangered: 532 species
    • Vulnerable: 674 species
  47. North American trends of conservation status
    • Declining: 208 species
    • Increasing: 118 species
    • Stable: 88 species
    • Grasslands (short grass prairie) are threatened
  48. Conservation failures
    • Heath hen
    • Dodo
    • Great auk
    • Carolina parakeet
    • Labrador duck
    • Passenger pigeon
  49. Conservation successes
    • Bald eagle
    • Peregrine falcon
    • Wood duck
    • Wild turkey
    • Whooping crane
    • California condor
  50. Importance of habitat
    The single most important factor in managing and conserving birds
  51. Contemporary issues in conservation
    • Brood parasitism
    • Habitat destruction
    • Feral cats
  52. Readings: eared grebe migration
    • Juveniles tend to migrate sooner than adults
    • Individuals lose a lot of mass during migration
    • During staging, they accumulate fat stores up to 46% of body mass
    • Muscle atrophy ~11%
    • ↑ fat = postponing migration for ↑ darkness (winter months) when ↓ predation risk
  53. Readings: viviparous birds
    • Instead of viviparity, birds have adapted to reproduce successfully
    • The costs of oviparity outweigh the costs of vivparity
  54. Readings: phainopepla digestion
    • The gizzard of the phainopepla can remove the exocarp from mistletoe seeds
    • By not grinding the seeds, the bird can save time and energy digesting and can plant whole seeds for the plant
  55. Readings: chickadee memory
    • Hippocampus = memory section of brain
    • Chickadees cache food for winter
    • Take-home: # of hippocamopal neurons of chickadees is greater in areas w/ more severe winters

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview