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Alternation of generation
The life cycle that results from meiosis, in which the organism spends part of its time as a haploid individual and part of its times as a diploid individual
Male sexual organ of a bryophyte (e.g. moss) or a pteridophyte (e.g. fern)
Female sexual organ of a byophyte, pteridophtye, or gymnosperm
The gamete-producing stage in the life cycle of an organism
A haploid reproductive cell; gametes fuse in pairs and form a zygote
Production of a single type of spore which develops into a bisexual gametophyte
Production of two types of spores, mega and microspores, which develop into male or female gametophytes
Spore that develops into a female gametophyte
- A structure in seed plants containing an egg cell (among other things) and a layer or two of protective tissue. An ovule has the potential to develop into a seed.
- Consists of the nucellus (megasporangium), surrounded by a strong integument with opening micropyle
- One megaspore develops into female gametophyte with archegonia
A hollow structure in which spores are produced
A reproductive cell capable of developing into an adult without fusion with another cell (compare gametes)
The spore-producing (2n) phase in a life cycle
- A diagram that shows evolutionary patterns by means of a series of branches
- Each node represents one taxon dividing into 2
- The new group has a new, derived feature (eg. white flowers)
- A taxon divides into two; the new group has a derived feature (eg. white flowers)
- Branch represents the common ancestor with red flowers
A taxonomic unit at any level in the hierarchy
- Bryotphytes (nonvascuar plants): liverworts, hornworts, mosses
- Vascular plants
- Seedless vascular plants: Lycophytes (club mosses), Pterophyte (ferns, horsetails, whisk fern)
- Seed plants: Gymnosperms, angiosperms
No net movement of water
in highly oncentrated solution, vacuoles lose water, the cytoplasm shrinks and chloroplasts are seen in the center of the cels
When in pure water, vacuoles fill with water, turgor pressure develops, cell content are pushed against the cell wall
Membrane proteins that allow very rapid movement of water molecules. Virtually all organisms have these. While most aquaporins are specialized in water transport, some transport other molecules as well.
Phloem transport, the pressure flow hypothesis
- Osmosis: phloem loading at source [sugar] increases
- Turgor pressure increases, change in pressure drives bulk flow from source to sink
- Sugar molecules are carried passively with water
- Unloading at sink, [sugar] decreases, water exists and returns to source
- The water pressure and source concentration is very high at the source and low at the sink
- The sun causes water to evaporate - the energy for xylem transport comes from the sun.
- Transpiration (evaporation) of water from leaves creates tension that pulls the water column in xylem from the roots
- Water column is held together by cohesion; adhesion keeps water column in place.
- Water from soil enters xylem in root; tension in water column extends from leaves to root
In water (xylem), by hydrogen bonding between water molecules
In water (xylem) due to the polarity of water molecules
- A dicot with epigeous germination; food is stored in the cotyledons
- Root emerges, hypocotyl elongates & forms a hook, hook straightens and pulls cotyledons & first tre leaves above ground
The small white scar on the concave side of an ordinary kidney bean. This marks the paoint at which the ovule was attached to the ovary wal.
A tiny pore next to the hilium on the kidney bean which allows the seed to fill with water.
the cotyledons, and the tiny, rudimentary bean plant to which they are attached, constitute the embryo
food storage organs and also may function as "seed leaves"
The terminal bud of the embryo of a seed plant
The part of an embryo or seedling above the attachment point of the cotyledon
The portion of an embryo or seedling between the radicle and the cotyledons
A protective sheath surrounding the emerging shoot of seedlings of the Grass Family
A protective sheath surrounding the emerging radicle (immature root) of members of the Grass Family
The cotyledon in monocots
A monocot with hypogenous germination; food is stored in the endosperm
3 stages to germination
- Phase 1, imbibtion: fast uptake of water
- Phase 2, Lag phase: slow uptake of water, doesn't "look" like anything is happening
- Phase 3, Radicle emergence: root emerges and begins to grow
- Pfr is the active form (710)
- Pr inhibits germination (660)
- Under open canopy, the red part of sunlight converts Pr to Pfr - and germination occurs
- Pfr reverts back to Pr in the dark or in the shaded understory
- Very important with climate change coming. How plants with the same genotype show different phenotypes in different environments.
- Another example is even the change in leaf shape in Giant Red woods: top is small and scale like at top, flat and large at bottom.
- This and acclimation are short term changes
Plants change to meet their climate. This and phenotypic plastiticity are short term changes
Light reactions of photosynthesis
- First light hits Photosystem II, hits the pigments, to the reactive chloropyll a molecule, H2O-splitting complex, goes to the Primary electron acceptor
- Down the electron transport chain (ETC) to P700 Photosystem I, Reactive chlorophyll a molecule, up to the primary electron acceptor, and into electron carriers (NADP+ to NADPH)
- A proton gradient is established during light reactions. ATP is produced when protons flow into the stroma
A growth-regulating substance produced either naturally by plants or synthetically
A growth-inhibiting hormone of plants; it is involved with other hormones in dormancy
One group of plant hormones that have a variety of effects on growth; they are particularly known for promoting elongation of stems
- Similar biotic communities considered on a worldwide scale (desert biome, grassland biome)
- These are usually arranged as latitudinal belts: Equator, tropical rainforest; temperate deciduous forest, Taiga, tundra, Polar ice
- The branch of ecology that deals with the biological relationship between an individual organism or an individual species and its environment.
- Such as: growth habit, phenological stage, mode of reproduction, habitat requirements, response to disturbance
- The study of the ecological interrelationships among communities of organisms.
- The next level up
Indications of autecology and synecology
- Pollination and dispersal
- Stress tolerance (ecophysiology)
- Vertical structure and variability
When two or more individuals of the same or different species are striving to capture the same limiting resource(s). This results in the reduction in growth in one or both individuals
Are environmental factors that are directly consumed by the plant (light, water, and nutrients)
- Are factors that influence the survival and growth of plants but these are not directly consumed by the plants.
- These factors (positive or negative) are influenced by other vegetation e.g. air and soil temperature, humidity, wind, growing space, mechanical interactions (snow press or physical damage), animals, insects, and pathogens.
Forest management objectives
- For the human consumption of trees (fiber, wood, etc)
- For maintaining, reclaiming, or restoring forest ecosystems and their function
- Or a mixture of both
Specifc for wood, like growing a crop
Cutting down trees and replace with agriculture or a parking lot
Removing trees but allow the forest to regrow
Planting trees on land that was used for other purposes preciously
Forests for the trees
An evolution from...
- A proess by which the forest is tended, removed, and replaced by a new crop, resulting in a production of stands of distinctive form
- A process that applies silvicultural pracitices (harvesting, regeneration, and stand tending) to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest (non-timber) products
- A planned program of treatments throughout the life of the stand to achieve strand structural objectives based on integrated resource management goals. A sulvicultural system includes harvesting regeneration, and stand tending methods or phases (BC forest Service)
- To sustainable Forest management (SFM) managing forests "to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity, or capacity for regeneration."
- Sustainable Forest Management
- -managing forests "to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity, or capacity for
- Conservation of biological diversity
- Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystem
- Maintenance of forest ecosystem health
- Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources
- Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socioeconomic benefits to meet the needs of society
- Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management
Boreal forest natural disturbances
- Insects, windthrow
- Managing on the large scale (landscape)
- "A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending, haresting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products"
- "A planned program of silvicultural treatment extending throughout the life of a stand; it includes regeneration treatments and any tending options, protective treatments, or intermediate cuttings"
- Name based on the regeneration method that is used at the stage of stand replacement
Constrains to crop production
- Genetic - growth determining factors
- Environmental - growth limiting factors
- Crop pests - growth reducing factors
Reduce: weeds, insects, disease (each about 10-12%
- Plant grow where you don't want it
- Classified due to the life cycle, taxonomy, CO2 fixation, legislation
- Many weeds in AB
- Cause sever infestation when population reach outbreak densities
- Often cropping and weather factors contribute ie. grasshoppers in the dry
Any deviation from the normal state due to irritation by pathogen or environmental factors
Different organs infected
- Blackleg - on leaves
- Alternaria blackspot - seeds
- Clubroot - root
- White stem - stem
- Cultural management strategies: crop rotation, sanitation, tillage
- Biological control: control of pests by other organisms, can occur naturally, suppressive soils (contain antagonistry, characteristics)
Integrate Pest Management
- Biological control
- Resistance: breeding, modification
- Environment design: Rotation, cultivation, sanitization, fertilize
- The dispersal units of seed plants
- A mature, fertilized ovule containing 3 basic parts: embryo, seed coat (testa), food source
- Has great survival value: testa protects embryo; food source nourishes embryo
Aternation of generations
Alternation between a haploid gametophyte phase and a diploid sporophyte phase in the life cycle of seually reproducing organisms
The haploid gamete-producing phase in the life cycle. Gametes are formed in sexual organs: antheridia (sperm) and archegonia (egg)
The diploid spore-producing phase in the life cycle
Bryophytes: mosses, hornworts, liverworts
Sporophyte dominant but gametophyte free-living and photosynthesizing
Ferns, club-mosses, horsetails
Sporophyte dominant and gametophyte greatly reuced
Gymnosperms and angiosperms
collection of reproductive structures on a short axis
- Lodgepole pine and Jack pine
- These have resin cover and only open in fire.
Produces ovules at tips of shoots, (red)
"berries" are fleshy seed cones