PlSc 221 Part Two

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PlSc 221 Part Two
2013-04-22 23:02:11
After midterm

Final studying
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  1. Alternation of generation
    The life cycle that results from meiosis, in which the organism spends part of its time as a haploid individual and part of its times as a diploid individual
  2. Antheridium
    Male sexual organ of a bryophyte (e.g. moss) or a pteridophyte (e.g. fern)
  3. Archegonium
    Female sexual organ of a byophyte, pteridophtye, or gymnosperm
  4. Gametophyte
    The gamete-producing stage in the life cycle of an organism
  5. Gamete
    A haploid reproductive cell; gametes fuse in pairs and form a zygote
  6. Homospory
    Production of a single type of spore which develops into a bisexual gametophyte
  7. Heterospory
    Production of two types of spores, mega and microspores, which develop into male or female gametophytes
  8. Megaspore
    Spore that develops into a female gametophyte
  9. Ovule
    • A structure in seed plants containing an egg cell (among other things) and a layer or two of protective tissue.  An ovule has the potential to develop into a seed.
    • Consists of the nucellus (megasporangium), surrounded by a strong integument with opening micropyle
    • One megaspore develops into female gametophyte with archegonia
  10. Sporangium
    A hollow structure in which spores are produced
  11. Spore
    A reproductive cell capable of developing into an adult without fusion with another cell (compare gametes)
  12. Sporophyte
    The spore-producing (2n) phase in a life cycle
  13. Cladogram
    • A diagram that shows evolutionary patterns by means of a series of branches
    • Each node represents one taxon dividing into 2
    • The new group has a new, derived feature (eg. white flowers)
  14. Node (taxology)
    • A taxon divides into two; the new group has a derived feature (eg. white flowers)
    • Branch represents the common ancestor with red flowers
  15. Classification
    • Domain
    • Kingdom
    • Phylum
    • Class
    • Order
    • Family
    • Genus
    • Species
  16. Taxon
    A taxonomic unit at any level in the hierarchy
  17. Land plants
    • Bryotphytes (nonvascuar plants): liverworts, hornworts, mosses
    • Vascular plants
    • Seedless vascular plants: Lycophytes (club mosses), Pterophyte (ferns, horsetails, whisk fern)
    • Seed plants: Gymnosperms, angiosperms
  18. Isotonic solution
    No net movement of water
  19. Plasmolysis
    in highly oncentrated solution, vacuoles lose water, the cytoplasm shrinks and chloroplasts are seen in the center of the cels
  20. Turgor pressure
    When in pure water, vacuoles fill with water, turgor pressure develops, cell content are pushed against the cell wall
  21. Aquaporin
    Membrane proteins that allow very rapid movement of water molecules.  Virtually all organisms have these.  While most aquaporins are specialized in water transport, some transport other molecules as well.
  22. Phloem transport, the pressure flow hypothesis
    • Osmosis: phloem loading at source [sugar] increases
    • Turgor pressure increases, change in pressure drives bulk flow from source to sink
    • Sugar molecules are carried passively with water
    • Unloading at sink, [sugar] decreases, water exists and returns to source
    • The water pressure and source concentration is very high at the source and low at the sink
  23. Xylem transport
    • The sun causes water to evaporate - the energy for xylem transport comes from the sun.
    • Transpiration (evaporation) of water from leaves creates tension that pulls the water column in xylem from the roots
    • Water column is held together by cohesion; adhesion keeps water column in place.
    • Water from soil enters xylem in root; tension in water column extends from leaves to root
  24. Cohesion
    In water (xylem), by hydrogen bonding between water molecules
  25. Adhesion
    In water (xylem) due to the polarity of water molecules
  26. Garden bean
    • A dicot with epigeous germination; food is stored in the cotyledons
    • Root emerges, hypocotyl elongates & forms a hook, hook straightens and pulls cotyledons & first tre leaves above ground
  27. Hilium
    The small white scar on the concave side of an ordinary kidney bean.  This marks the paoint at which the ovule was attached to the ovary wal.
  28. Micoropyle
    A tiny pore next to the hilium on the kidney bean which allows the seed to fill with water.
  29. Embryo
    the cotyledons, and the tiny, rudimentary bean plant to which they are attached, constitute the embryo
  30. Cotyledons
    food storage organs and also may function as "seed leaves"
  31. Plumule
    The terminal bud of the embryo of a seed plant
  32. Epicotyl
    The part of an embryo or seedling above the attachment point of the cotyledon
  33. Hypocotyl
    The portion of an embryo or seedling between the radicle and the cotyledons
  34. Coleoptile
    A protective sheath surrounding the emerging shoot of seedlings of the Grass Family
  35. Coleorhiza
    A protective sheath surrounding the emerging radicle (immature root) of members of the Grass Family
  36. Scutellum
    The cotyledon in monocots
  37. Corn
    A monocot with hypogenous germination; food is stored in the endosperm
  38. 3 stages to germination
    • Phase 1, imbibtion: fast uptake of water
    • Phase 2, Lag phase: slow uptake of water, doesn't "look" like anything is happening
    • Phase 3, Radicle emergence: root emerges and begins to grow
  39. Phytochrome
    • Pfr is the active form (710)
    • Pr inhibits germination (660)
    • Under open canopy, the red part of sunlight converts Pr to Pfr - and germination occurs
    • Pfr reverts back to Pr in the dark or in the shaded understory
  40. Phenotypic plasticity
    • Very important with climate change coming.  How plants with the same genotype show different phenotypes in different environments.
    • Another example is even the change in leaf shape in Giant Red woods: top is small and scale like at top, flat and large at bottom.
    • This and acclimation are short term changes
  41. Acclimation
    Plants change to meet their climate. This and phenotypic plastiticity are short term changes
  42. Light reactions of photosynthesis
    • First light hits Photosystem II, hits the pigments, to the reactive chloropyll a molecule, H2O-splitting complex, goes to the Primary electron acceptor
    • Down the electron transport chain (ETC) to P700 Photosystem I, Reactive chlorophyll a molecule, up to the primary electron acceptor, and into electron carriers (NADP+ to NADPH)
    • A proton gradient is established during light reactions.  ATP is produced when protons flow into the stroma
  43. Auxin
    A growth-regulating substance produced either naturally by plants or synthetically
  44. Abscisic acid
    A growth-inhibiting hormone of plants; it is involved with other hormones in dormancy
  45. Gibberellin
    One group of plant hormones that have a variety of effects on growth; they are particularly known for promoting elongation of stems
  46. Biome
    • Similar biotic communities considered on a worldwide scale (desert biome, grassland biome)
    • These are usually arranged as latitudinal belts: Equator, tropical rainforest; temperate deciduous forest, Taiga, tundra, Polar ice
  47. Autecology
    • The branch of ecology that deals with the biological relationship between an individual organism or an individual species and its environment.
    • Such as: growth habit, phenological stage, mode of reproduction, habitat requirements, response to disturbance
  48. Synecology
    • The study of the ecological interrelationships among communities of organisms.
    • The next level up
  49. Indications of autecology and synecology
    • Reproduction
    • Pollination and dispersal
    • Stress tolerance (ecophysiology)
    • Vertical structure and variability
    • Competition
    • Facilitation
    • Inhibition
    • Herbivory
  50. Ecophysiology
    Stress tolerance
  51. Competition
    When two or more individuals of the same or different species are striving to capture the same limiting resource(s).  This results in the reduction in growth in one or both individuals
  52. Resources
    Are environmental factors that are directly consumed by the plant (light, water, and nutrients)
  53. Conditions
    • Are factors that influence the survival and growth of plants but these are not directly consumed by the plants.
    • These factors (positive or negative) are influenced by other vegetation e.g. air and soil temperature, humidity, wind, growing space, mechanical interactions (snow press or physical damage), animals, insects, and pathogens.
  54. Forest management objectives
    • For the human consumption of trees (fiber, wood, etc)
    • For maintaining, reclaiming, or restoring forest ecosystems and their function
    • Or a mixture of both
  55. Plantation forrestry
    Specifc for wood, like growing a crop
  56. Defrestation
    Cutting down trees and replace with agriculture or a parking lot
  57. Reforestation
    Removing trees but allow the forest to regrow
  58. Aforestation
    Planting trees on land that was used for other purposes preciously
  59. Forests for the trees
    An evolution from...
    • A proess by which the forest is tended, removed, and replaced by a new crop, resulting in a production of stands of distinctive form
    • A process that applies silvicultural pracitices (harvesting, regeneration, and stand tending) to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest (non-timber) products
    • A planned program of treatments throughout the life of the stand to achieve strand structural objectives based on integrated resource management goals.  A sulvicultural system includes harvesting regeneration, and stand tending methods or phases (BC forest Service)
    • To sustainable Forest management (SFM) managing forests "to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity, or capacity for regeneration."
  60. SFM
    • Sustainable Forest Management
    • -managing forests "to meet current needs without prejudice to their future productivity, ecological diversity, or capacity for
    • regeneration."
    • Conservation of biological diversity
    • Maintenance of productive capacity of forest ecosystem
    • Maintenance of forest ecosystem health
    • Conservation and maintenance of soil and water resources
    • Maintenance and enhancement of long-term multiple socioeconomic benefits to meet the needs of society
    • Legal, institutional, and economic framework for forest conservation and sustainable management
  61. Boreal forest natural disturbances
    • Fire
    • Insects, windthrow
    • Managing on the large scale (landscape)
  62. Silvicultural system
    • "A process that applies silvicultural practices, including tending, haresting, and replacement, to a stand in order to produce a crop of timber and other forest products"
    • "A planned program of silvicultural treatment extending throughout the life of a stand; it includes regeneration treatments and any tending options, protective treatments, or intermediate cuttings"
    • Name based on the regeneration method that is used at the stage of stand replacement
  63. Constrains to crop production
    • Genetic - growth determining factors
    • Environmental - growth limiting factors
    • Crop pests - growth reducing factors
  64. Crop protection
    Reduce: weeds, insects, disease (each about 10-12%
  65. Weed
    • Plant grow where you don't want it
    • Classified due to the life cycle, taxonomy, CO2 fixation, legislation
    • Many weeds in AB
  66. Insects
    • Cause sever infestation when population reach outbreak densities
    • Often cropping and weather factors contribute ie. grasshoppers in the dry
  67. Plant disease
    Any deviation from the normal state due to irritation by pathogen or environmental factors
  68. Different organs infected
    • Blackleg - on leaves
    • Alternaria blackspot - seeds
    • Clubroot - root
    • White stem - stem
  69. Pest management
    • Cultural management strategies: crop rotation, sanitation, tillage
    • Biological control: control of pests by other organisms, can occur naturally, suppressive soils (contain antagonistry, characteristics)
  70. Integrate Pest Management
    • Pesticides
    • Biological control
    • Resistance: breeding, modification
    • Environment design: Rotation, cultivation, sanitization, fertilize
  71. Seed
    • The dispersal units of seed plants
    • A mature, fertilized ovule containing 3 basic parts: embryo, seed coat (testa), food source
    • Has great survival value: testa protects embryo; food source nourishes embryo
  72. Aternation of generations
    Alternation between a haploid gametophyte phase and a diploid sporophyte phase in the life cycle of seually reproducing organisms
  73. Gametophyte
    The haploid gamete-producing phase in the life cycle. Gametes are formed in sexual organs: antheridia (sperm) and archegonia (egg)
  74. Sporophyte
    The diploid spore-producing phase in the life cycle
  75. Gametophyte dominant
    Bryophytes: mosses, hornworts, liverworts
  76. Sporophyte dominant but gametophyte free-living and photosynthesizing
    Ferns, club-mosses, horsetails
  77. Sporophyte dominant and gametophyte greatly reuced
    Gymnosperms and angiosperms
  78. cone
    collection of reproductive structures on a short axis
  79. Serotinous cones
    • Lodgepole pine and Jack pine
    • These have resin cover and only open in fire.
  80. Yew
    Produces ovules at tips of shoots, (red)
  81. Juniper
    "berries" are fleshy seed cones