Psych 111 Exam 3

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Psych 111 Exam 3
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  1. Developmental Psychology
    • Universal aspects of lifespan development from conception through death;
    • Identifies cultural variations
    • Explores physical, cognitive, social and emotional development
  2. Germinal Phase
    • Conception-2 weeks
    • Zygote = fertilized egg
    • Placenta = structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mother's bloodstream; allows waste to pass out
  3. Embryonic Stage
    • 2-8 weeks
    • Head, face and neck develop
    • Buds for limbs form and grow
    • Major organs/digestive system differentiating
    • Heartbeat begins
  4. Fetal Stage
    8 weeks - birth
  5. 3rd Month of Prenatal Development
    • Digestive organs begin to function
    • Buds for teeth form
    • Sex organs develop rapidly
    • Arms/fingers move
  6. 4th Month of Prenatal Development
    • Face looks human
    • Lower body outgrows head
    • Bones are defined
  7. 5th Month of Prenatal Development
    • Fingernails and toenails appear
    • Lanugo: fine, wooly hair over body
    • Vernix: waxy coating collects
  8. 6th Month of Prenatal Development
    • Eyebrows/lashes well defined
    • Eyes completely formed
  9. 7th Month of Prenatal Development
    Fetus is capable of life outside the uterus
  10. 8th/9th Months of Prenatal Development:
    • Fat is deposited for later use
    • Fingernails beyond fingertips
    • Lanugo is shed
    • Myelination of brain takes place
    • Chief organs increase functioning
    • Vernix covers body
  11. Cephalocaudal Development
    Head to feet development
  12. Proximodistal Development
    Center moving outward development
  13. Teratogens
    Harmful toxins that affect development resulting in defect, damage or anomaly
  14. Drugs or Chemicals Effect on Development
    Certain drugs can alter development - ex] Thalidomide
  15. Stress Effect on Development
    Prolonged stress is linked with prematurity and low birth rate
  16. Smoking Effect on Development
    Mild stimulant; increases fetal activity; low birth weight, increased SIDS
  17. Marijuana Effect on Development
    Low birth weight, disturbed sleep in newborns, reduced attention to environment
  18. Heroin Effect on Development
    Premature birth weight, tremulous behavior, poor sleep, poor sucking and feeding, risk of SIDS
  19. Cocaine Effect on Development
    • "Crack babies":
    • Premature size/weight, tremulous, high pitched crying, respiratory & regurgitation problems, rigidity, withdrawal symptoms, deformities
  20. Comorbidity
    • Presence of more than one disorder
    • Abuse of multiple substances is likely
  21. Alcohol Effect on Development
    • Leading teratogen in the US causing mental retardation:
    • Physical Symptoms:growth retardation, head and facial abnormalities, microcephaly, skeletal, brain, & heart damage
    • Behavioral Symptoms: poor impulse control, poor attention, hyperactivity, cognitive deficits
  22. Paternal Age
    May be a factor in birth defects and/or certain developmental disabilities
  23. Vision in Newborns
    • Poor fixation ability
    • Limited ability to discriminate color
    • Estimated visual acuity of between 20/200 and 20/400
    • Preference for human faces
  24. Hearing in Newborns
    Fetus can hear sounds around 6 months in-utero: recognize mother's voice
  25. Taste and Smell in Newborns
    Both present at birth, preference for sweet
  26. Touch in Newborns
    Heat, cold, pressure, and pain all present at birth
  27. Reflexes
    Inborn, automatic responses to a particular form of stimulation
  28. Rooting Reflex
    Survival value, stroke cheek and baby will turn head toward the stimulation
  29. Stepping Reflex
    Basis for complex motor skills, with bare feet touching floor infant will mimic a stepping response (disappears around 2 months)
  30. Sucking Reflex
    Place a finger in mouth and baby will suck; permits feeding
  31. Eyeblink Reflex
    Shine a bright light or clap, they will close eyelids. Protects from strong stimulation.
  32. Babinski Reflex
    Stroke the heel to see reactions of the toes which flex/fan out; normal in infants. If persists, can indicate neurological problems
  33. Ages 2-3 Gross and Fine Motor Development
    • Gross: walk rhythmically, jump, hop, push a riding toy with feet
    • Fine: remove simple clothing items, start to use a spoon
  34. Ages 3-4 Gross and Fine Motor Development
    • Gross: walks upstairs alternating feet, catches ball by trapping in chest, rides a tricycle
    • Fine: fasten/unfasten large buttons, uses scissors, copies lines, circles, draws tadpole person
  35. Ages 4-5 Gross and Fine Motor Development
    • Gross: walks downstairs alternating feet, runs smoothly, catches ball with hands, rapid/smooth steering
    • Fine: uses a fork, cuts with scissors on kines, copies triangles, and some letters
  36. Ages 5-6 Gross and Fine Motor Development
    • Gross: increases running speed, true skipping, ride bicycle
    • Fine: uses knife to cut food, tie shoes, draw 6 part person, copies words and numbers
  37. Gender Differences in Development
    • Boys tend to be ahead of girls in force and power
    • Girls tend to be ahead in fine and gross motor skills (good balance)
  38. Thomas and Chess
    Identified three basic temperaments for infants: difficult, slow to warm, and easy
  39. Temperament
    Relatively constant basic disposition which is inherent in a person that underlies and modulates his/her behavior
  40. Difficult Temperament
    Often wail, cry, and are negative in new situations; eat and sleep irregularly
  41. Slow-to-Warm-Up Temperament
    Often inactive, adapt slower, and can be withdrawn and show negative moods
  42. Easy Temperament
    Cheerful, adaptable, easily establish routines
  43. Goodness of Fit
    • The match between the characteristics of the infant and his/her family is critical to development
    • Some are better matches than others
  44. Attachment
    • The affectional bond between an infant and its caretaker
    • Studies by Ainsworth in her attachment paradigm - still being used today
    • The "strange situation" allows researchers to assess attachment relationships
    • Mothers are the most common first object of attachment
    • Initial attachments can occur with the mother and another person at the same time
    • The number of a child's attachments increase rapidly
  45. Separation Anxiety
    Infants express their wish to be attached by wishing to be close to their caretaker - when said caretaker departs, the infant shows signs of distress = separation anxiety
  46. Stranger Anxiety
    • Develops when infants are around 6-7 months ending around 18 months. If a stranger approaches, the infant becomes afraid and reaches for the caregiver
    • Structure of the "Strange Situation"
  47. Secure Attachment
    • Child uses the parent as a safe base to explore, when separated the child may not cry during absence, seek contact when the parent returns, decrease crying if present
    • ~65% of US infants
  48. Avoidant Attachment
    • Unresponsive to parent when present, no distress when she leaves, reacts to strangers similarly as to parent, slow to greet parent when she returns
    • ~20% of US infants
  49. Resistant Attachment
    • Seek closeness with parent, fail to explore, upon return, display anger, resistant behavior, cannot be comforted
    • ~10-15% of US infants
  50. Disorganized/Disoriented Attachment
    • Greatest amount of insecurity. In reunion, show disorganized, confused behavior. Seem confused, glazed, and spacey. Mothers are more avoidant and inconsistent with a lack of sensitivity to infant's needs
    • ~3-5% of US infants
  51. Baumrind
    Studied parenting styles and child outcomes
  52. Authoritarian Parenting Style
    • Restrictive parenting; insist on obedience, rigid rules; no explanations and insensitivity.
    • Preschoolers were moody, easily annoyed, unfriendly, and less motivated
  53. Authoritative Parenting Style
    • Assume control with flexibility; reasonable demands; provide reasons for rules/decisions
    • Preschoolers were cheerful, socially responsible, achievement oriented, and cooperative
  54. Permissive Parenting Style
    • Accepting and lax with few demands, little monitoring; few controls
    • Preschoolers were impulsive, aggressive, sassy, self-centered, low in independence and achievement
  55. Uninvolved Parenting Style
    • Maccoby
    • Removed or hostile parenting; overwhelmed with own stressors, have little time or energy to parent
    • Children were high in aggression, had temper tantrums, performed poorly in the classroom
  56. Harlow Monkey Studies
    • Reared monkeys in isolation or with a surrogate mother
    • After 6 months sent back to colony
    • Isolated monkeys showed indifference, were terrified or were aggressive with other monkeys, failed to form relationships with the opposite sex, were abusive to offspring
    • Hypothesized that animals and humans need warmth and comfort as a primary need along with the basic biological ones
  57. Peer Relationships
    • Arena for exercising independence from adults and adult control
    • Equal footing relationship
    • Help translate and establish trends/group belonging, behavior codes
    • Serve as role models
    • Provide emotional support
  58. Asynchrony
    Certain body parts grow at different speeds during adolescence leading to a lack of proportion
  59. Prefrontal Cortex
    • Final maturation occurs during late adolescence
    • Responsible for organization, planning, emotional regulation, and impulse control
  60. Menarche
    First occurrence of menstruation
  61. Spermarche
    First occurrence of ejaculation
  62. Early Puberty on Genders
    • Males have positive-self concepts from it
    • Females have a greater chance of depression, anxiety, and eating disorders
  63. Adolescent Egocentricism
    • Way of thinking that the world is focused on themselves
    • Elkind
  64. Imaginary Audience
    • Belief that everyone in the environment is concerned with the behavior/appearance of him/herself
    • Elkind
  65. Personal Fable
    • View him/herself as somehow unique or heroic
    • Elkind
  66. Invincibility Fable
    False sense that he/she can't be harmed
  67. Similarity to Parents in Adolescents
    For issues regarding finances, education and career, religion and politics - today's adolescents are more similar to their parents
  68. Common Conflicts Between Adolescents and Parents
    Occur mostly about chores and dress styles (more than drugs or sex)
  69. Jean Piaget and Cognitive Development
    • How a child thinks, including reasoning, remembering, and problem solving
    • Criticized for underestimating children's abilities, not focusing enough on individual differences; much research still supports hsi theories/beliefs
  70. Assimilation
    How to fit new info into the present system of knowledge
  71. Accommodation
    Existing structures don't fit so a child must develop new schemas
  72. Sensorimotor Stage
    • Birth-2 years
    • Infants learn through concrete motor actions; by touching, tasting and smelling
    • Accomplish object permanence at 6 months
    • Develop capacity for mental imagery
    • Organize information into categories
    • Increasingly able to use purposeful activity
  73. Preoperational Stage
    • 2-7 years
    • Gradually improve in mental images
    • Can pretend
    • Action oriented
    • Develop representational thought
    • Have NOT mastered conservation - basic properties of an object remain stable even if superficial properties change
    •          -Centration: focus on one aspect of a problem and neglect other aspects
    •          -Irreversibility: inability to envision reversing an action
    •          -Egocentricism: thinking characterized by a limited ability to share another person's point of view (if I know it, everyone knows it)
  74. Concrete Operations Stage
    • 7-11 years
    • The child performs operations on tangible objects and events
    • Show increased flexibility in thinking
    • Can begin to see cause and effect
    • Masters reversibility and decentration
    • Can retrace thoughts
    • Assessed with hierarchical constructs
  75. Formal Operations Stage
    • 12 years and up
    • Begin to see abstract reasoning
    • Understand metaphor and deductive reasoning
    • Become more systematic in thinking
    • Can discuss moral values
  76. Erik Erikson
    • Theory of lifespan development
    • Believes each stage involves a psychosocial crisis: a transition which is organized around social relationships and that personality is determined by these stages
    • 8 Stages: Year 1, Years 2/3, Years 4-6, Adolescence, Early Adulthood, Middle Adulthood, Late Adulthood
  77. Kohlberg
    • Studied moral development using the Heinze dilemma. Found various stages of moral development based on responses to this and similar situations
    • 6 Stages, 3 categories: Preconventional, Conventional, Postconventional
  78. Fluid Intelligence
    • Basic info processing skils
    • More likely to decline with age
  79. Crystallized Intelligence
    • Application of accumulated knowledge
    • Remains more stable through aging
  80. Langer and Rodin Study
    • Maintaining a sense of control over one's life leads to greater psychological well-being in the elderly
    • Nursing home experiment
  81. Cattel
    • Studied traits using factor analysis
    • Developed the 16 Personality Factors Questionnaire
    • Examples: Reserved-Outgoing, Relaxed-Tense, Trusting-Suspicious
  82. McRae and Costa "Big Five" Personality Traits
    • Openness
    • Conscientiousness
    • Extraversion
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
  83. Psychodynamic Theory
    • Freud's Psychoanalytic Theory
    • Focus on the influences of early childhood
    • Emphasis on unconscious motives/conflicts
    • Primary focus on sexual and aggressive urges
  84. Id
    • Impulses
    • Dominated by pleasure or to avoid pain
  85. Ego
    "Voice of Reason" mediator between the Id and Superego, helps find compromises
  86. Superego
    • Moral component of personality
    • Rigid standards
  87. Freud's Stages of Development
    • Oral (birth-1 year): sucking, swallowing, biting [fixation leads to lasting concerns with dependence and independence, pleasure from eating, drinking, and other oral activities]
    • Anal (1-3 years): expelling/retaining feces [fixation yields orderliness, stinginess, stubbornness]
    • Phallic (3-5 years): touching penis or clitoris, Oedipus complex [fixation leads to difficulty feeling closeness, male fear of castration or female penis envy]
    • Latency (5/6-puberty): sexual interests suppressed
    • Genital (puberty onward): sexual contact with other people
  88. Defense Mechanisms
    • Responses to anxiety which is caused by internal conflicts; attempts to reduce distress of anxiety/guilt
    • Displacement: displace emotions on others
    • Rationalization
    • Denial (least adaptive usually)
  89. Carl Jung
    • Analytical psychology
    • Freudian influenced
  90. Personal Unconscious
    Material which one has repressed or forgotten from personal experiences
  91. Collective Unconscious
    Traces of inherited memories from one's ancestral past; archetypes or images and thoughts with universal meaning (ex: water)
  92. Adler and Individual Psychology
    • Motivation for superiority stressed
    • Universal attempt to improve oneself and master life's challenges
  93. Inferiority Complex
    Everyone must overcome feelings of weakness in comparison to competent adult or sibling
  94. Compensation
    Efforts to develop one's own abilities in response to inferiorities
  95. Overcompensation
    Attempts to "conceal" one's own feelings of inferiority
  96. Reciprocal Determinism
    • Bandura
    • Reinforcement history and cognition influence behavior
    • We see what we expect to see
    • We place ourselves in places which will confirm our beliefs
  97. Self-Efficacy
    • Belief one can set out to accomplish tasks/goals
    • Acquired from 4 sources:
    • Mastery of new skills, overcome obstacles
    • Successful or competent role models
    • Positive feedback and encouragement
    • Awareness of feelings/manage responses
  98. Internal Locus of Control
    People believe they are responsible for what happens to them
  99. External Locus of Control
    People believe their lives are controlled by luck, fate, or other people
  100. Mischel's Person by Situation Interaction
    • People express particular traits in particular situations
    • Most likely to see consistency within these similar situations
    • Some traits are more situationally determined
  101. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
    • A goal of humans is to be self-actualized; a basic hierarchy of needs exists. Innate drive towards personal growth
    • Often seen as a pyramid of needs:
    • Bottom to top:
    • Physiological needs
    • Safety and security needs
    • Belongingness and love needs
    • Esteem needs
    • Cognitive needs
    • Aesthetic needs
    • Need for self-actualization
  102. Carl Rogers
    • Accepts the self-actualizing tendency, explores individuals who do not function well
    • Looked at the relationship between the self (one's conscious feelings/views of self) and the person (sum of experiences, feelings, perceptions, and wishes)
  103. Congruence
    When sense of self and the person are consistent it allows positive functioning
  104. Incongruence
    Sense of self and person in conflict
  105. Unconditional Positive Regard
    Attempt to resolve conflict; accept one may have acted badly and still be a good person; accepts one in a positive and accepting manner
  106. Endomorph
    • Round, soft body, few muscles
    • Tolerant, calm, needs affection, good humored, sociable
  107. Mesomorph
    • Muscular, upright, firm, mature
    • Adventurous, competitive, less empathetic, desire for power, love of risk
  108. Ectomorph
    • Skinny, thin, delicate, few muscles, young appearance
    • Shy, introverted, self-conscious, inhibited, socially anxious
  109. Eysenck's Theory
    • Personality is determined by a large extent to one's genes
    • All personality emerges from 3 higher order traits:
    • Extraversion = being sociable, assertive and lively
    • Neuroticism = anxious, tense, moody, low self-esteem
    • Psychoticism = egocentric, cold, impulsive
  110. Terror Management Theory
    • Explores our need to use self-esteem as a buffer against anxiety over our own mortality
    • When people are reminded of their own mortality:
    •       -Subjects give harsher penalties to rule breakers
    •       -Give greater rewards to those upholding cultural standards
    •       -Respond more negatively to those critical of their country
    •       -Show more respect for cultural icons (flag)
  111. Frustration
    The pursuit of a goal is prevented
  112. Approach-Approach Conflict
    • A choice must be made between two desirable goals
    • Least stressful type of conflict
  113. Avoidance-Avoidance Conflict
    A choice must be made between two unattractive goals
  114. Approach-Avoidance Conflict
    A choice must be made about to achieve a goal which has both positive and negative attributes
  115. Holmes and Rahe made the:
    Social readjustment scale which applies points to stressful changes in someone's life that can be added up to determine how stressed someone is
  116. General Adaptation Syndrome
    • All types of stressful situations lead to a similar stress response consisting of three stages:
    • Alarm: the body releases adrenal hormones, sympathetic nervous system is activated
    • Resistance: body is on 'high alert'
    • Exhaustion: increased physiological vulnerability to stress
  117. Maladaptive Coping Strategies
    • Displaced Aggression: harmful act to someone verbally or physically who is not actually the true "object" of hostility
    • Catharsis: release of emotional tension
    • Self-Indulgence: compensate for deprived/frustrated feelings by trying to promote a feeling of satisfaction in another area
  118. Constructive Coping Strategies
    • Problem focused: how to change the situation
    • Emotion focused: how to change perceptions/reactions to the situation
    • Optimism
    • Social Support
  119. Defense Mechanisms
    • Compensation
    • Denial
    • Fantasy
    • Identification
    • Intellectualization
    • Isolation
    • Projection
    • Rationalization
    • Reaction Formation
    • Regression
    • Repression
    • Sublimation
  120. Type A Personality
    • Competitive, impatient, and more prone to aggression
    • 2x the risk of disease as Type B
  121. Type B Personality
    More relaxed, easy going, less quick to anger
  122. Smoking and Health
    • Smokers have a significantly shorter life expectancy than non-smokers
    • Lung cancer, heart disease, as well as other cancers, hypertension and emphysema are all smoking related illnesses
    • Smokers underestimate the health risks of smoking
    • Smokers overestimate their ability to quit (long term success only 25%)
  123. Aging and Stress
    • Declining health
    • Loss of family and friends
    • Employment and financial problems
    • Alienation from the larger society
    • Loneliness
  124. Mental Disorder
    Any behavior or emotional state that causes distress or suffering, is maladaptive and disturbs relationships and the greater community
  125. Autism
    • Impairment in communication skills and social interactions
    • Repetitive Behaviors
  126. Asperger's Syndrome
    Higher level communication skills, significant social impairment (facial feedback training)
  127. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
    • Inattention, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity which is inappropriate for a child's particular developmental age
    • ~5% of school aged children
    • More likely to be male
    • Genetic link/runs in families
    • Multimodal treatment approach: drugs and behavioral interventions
  128. Conduct Disorder
    • Violent social norms
    • Physical aggression
    • Cruelty to animals
    • Lack of remorse
    • May be a precurser to antisocial personality
  129. Tourette's Syndrome
    • Multiple motor and 1 or more vocal tics
    • Occur many times a day nearly every day or intermittently over a period of more than 1 year
    • Onset before age 18
    • Does NOT need to interfere with functioning for diagnosis
  130. Generalized Anxiety Disorder
    • Continuous feelings of worry, anxiety, dread/foreboding
    • Restlessness
    • Difficulty concentrating
    • Irritability
    • Muscle tension
    • Sleep disturbance
  131. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
    • Anxiety resulting from a clear/predictable danger or event
    • Reliving trauma in thoughts or dreams
    • Psychic numbing
    • Increased physiological arousal
  132. Panic Disorder
    • Recurring attack of intense fear or panic accompanied by feelings of impending doom or death
    • Symptoms: trembling, shaking, dizziness, chest pain, heart palpitations, hot/cold flashes, sense of losing control
  133. Social Phobia
    fear of being in a situation where the person will be observed by others
  134. Agoraphobia
    Fear of being alone in public places
  135. Brontophobia
    fear of thunder and lightning
  136. Arachibutyrophobia
    Fear of peanut butter sticking to the roof of the mouth
  137. Sesquipedalophobia
    Fear of long words
  138. Didaskaleinophobia
    Fear of school
  139. Obsession
    A recurrent, persistent, and unwished for thought
  140. Compulsion
    Repetitive ritualized behavior in which people feel a lack of control over it
  141. Depression
    • Sadness, lethargy, inactivity and feelings of helplessness and hopelessness
    • Genetic link
    • Behavioral changes: slow motor reactions
    • Cognitive changes: cognitive distortions
    • Physical changes: alters immune functioning
  142. Mania
    • Abnormally high level of energy
    • Great/special plans
    • Faulty thinking
    • Impulsive behavior
    • Grandiose schemes
    • Pressured speech
    • Spending large amounts of money
    • Outbursts of anger
  143. Bi-polar Disorder (Manic-Depression)
    • Cycle through depression and Mania
    • Responsive to: lithium and other mood stabilizers
    • Problem with compliance: miss the high
    • Can be adaptive, healthy and make significant contributions to society
  144. Stomatization Disorder
    History of diverse physical complaints which are psychological in origin
  145. Hypochondriasis
    Excessive preoccupation with health concerns/worry about developing illnesses
  146. Conversion Disorder
    Loss of physical function with no organic basis, usually a specific area or system affected
  147. Personality Disorders
    Rigid, maladaptive traits that cause great distress or lead to an inability to get along with others or to function well in the world
  148. Paranoid Personality Disorder
    • Suspicious
    • Argumentative
    • Reluctant to confide in others because of fears that information will be "used against" him/her
    • Looking out for trickery
    • Blame others and bears grudges
  149. Antisocial Personality Disorder
    • Likes to break rules/laws
    • Deceitful
    • Gladly take advantage of people
    • Lacks remorse
    • Can appear charming/friendly
    • Often intelligent
    • History of conduct disorder
  150. Borderline Personality Disorder
    • Manipulative
    • Stable pattern of unstable relationships
    • Frantic efforts to avoid "abandonment"
    • Splitting: all good or bad
    • Self-mutilating behaviors
    • Impulsivity
    • Sexual promiscuity
    • Quick to anger
  151. Histrionic Personality Disorder
    • Overly dramatic
    • Everything is a trauma
    • Attention seekers
    • Seductive
    • Not genuine
    • Dependent on others
  152. Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    • Feelings of grandiosity
    • Sense of privilege
    • Feels special
    • Expect favors from others
    • Takes advantage of others and lacks empathy
  153. Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder
    • Perfectionist
    • Preoccupied with details
    • Rules are essential
    • Particular
    • Serious and formal
    • Work gives pleasure
  154. Avoidant Personality Disorder
    • Excessively sensitive to rejection
    • Fearful of humiliation or shame
    • Socially withdrawn
    • Wishes to be accepted by others but avoids opportunities based on anxiety
  155. Schizophrenia
    • Psychosis or condition involving distorted perceptions of reality and an inability to function in most aspects of life
    • Typical age of onset 17-25
    • Strong genetic component
    • Positive symptoms (presence of a distortion or bizarre behavioral symptom): bizarre delusions, hallucinations, heightened sensory awareness, disorganized incoherent speech and behavior
    • Negative symptoms (loss of functioning or ability; behavioral deficits): poverty of speech, emotional flatness, loss of motivation, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention
  156. Paranoid Schizophrenia
    Predominately involving delusions of persecution and grandeur
  157. Catatonic Schizophrenia
    • Motor disturbances including a form of withdrawal involving motionless behavior
    • May also have agitated and random motor activity
  158. Disorganized Schizophrenia
    Emotional indifference, frequent incoherence, babbling and giggling
  159. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia
    Has a mixture of the symptoms of the other three sybtypes
  160. Dissociative Amnesia
    • Inability to remember important personal info; cant be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
    • Fugue state: no concept of self/can take on a whole new identity/life
  161. Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality Disorder)
    • The appearance of 2 or more distinct identities within one person
    • At least 2 recurrently take control over behavior
    • Inability to recall important information
    • Controversial in the field of psychology
  162. Psychotropic Medication
    • Alter the biochemistry of the brain
    • ADHD meds: ritalin, concerta, adderal (stimulants, dopamine); straterra (norepinephrine) [possible increase in suicidal thoughts]
    • Antidepressants: prozac, zoloft
    • Lithium for bi-polar disorder
    • Anti-anxiety: valium, xanax (addictive)
  163. Psychosurgery
    Lesion/destroy problematic areas of the brain to eliminate disruptive behaviors (lobotomy; OCD surgery)
  164. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): Shock Therapy
    • Beneficial to those with severe depressions which are not responsive to medication/therapy
    • Can lead to memory impairment
    • Unclear on why/how it works
  165. Free Association
    Saying whatever comes to mind
  166. Transference
    Develop relationship with therapist based on other people in one's life
  167. Psychodynamic Therapies
    • Looks at unconscious conflicts, defense mechanisms and symptom resolution in a broader manner than Freud
    • Still a form of "talk therapy"
  168. Humanistic/Client-Centered Therapies
    • Belief that people need to be supported and set the pace of their own therapy (Rogers)
    • Unconditional positive regard
    • Help build self-esteem and feelings of acceptance with genuineness and empathy
  169. Systematic Desensitization
    • Step by step process of eliminating a fear
    • Uses counterconditioning: pair relaxation techniques with the feared situation
  170. Aversion Therapy
    • Substitutes punishment for the reinforcement of a bad habit
    • Ex] Antabuse makes you violently vomit when you drink - used for alcoholics
  171. Virtual Reality Therapy
    A form of exposure therapy
  172. Flooding
    Immersion into the feared situation/circumstance as an intervention to decrease the phobic/feared response
  173. Cognitive Therapies
    • Help identify beliefs and expectations which maintain problems and conflictions
    • Challenges distortions in thinking
    • Identify faulty thinking and encourage realistic reappraisal with therapist support
    • Includes a variety of behavioral elements including modeling and rehearsal
  174. Family/Couples Therapy
    • Focus on the dynamics in the family as a system with different rules, roles, and motivations
    • Treat each person as integral to the bigger system; "identified patient" is a symptom bearer in the family
    • Change one part of the system and the whole system must adapt
  175. Group Therapy
    • People with similar or different problems come together to provide support strategies
    • Normalization is a key component
    • Can aid in social skills, modeling of adaptive strategies, and encourages empathy
    • Efficient use of resources - one therapist for like 20 people
  176. Psychotherapy Outcome Research
    • Various therapies see similar success rates, though this is challenged statistically (regression to the mean, placebo effect [even the thought of being in therapy helps a little])
    • Different beliefs that some therapies do better for some disorders than others
    • A positive therapeutic relationship to the therapist can be vital
  177. Social Psychology
    Examines the influence of social processes on the way people think, feel, and behave
  178. Attitudes
    A positive or negative evaluation reaction toward a person, object, or concept
  179. Attitude Strength
    The durability (if it lasts over time) and impact (if it impacts behavior or thoughts) of an attitude
  180. Initial Impressions
    Initial perceptions make a difference; and have shown strong effects
  181. Asch's Study
    • Found that a person presented with positive traits first was found to be more sociable and happier
    • When people were alone they got the answer correct
    • When in a group, only 20% appeared to remain completely independent in their responses
  182. Social Influence
    The presence of others energizes performance (Triplett)
  183. Social Norms
    • Shared expectations about thoughts,feelings, or behavior
    • Can vary by time and place
    • Culturally sensitive
  184. Social Role
    A set of norms which characterize how people in specific social positions should behave
  185. Role Conflict
    Norms accompanying different roles may clash
  186. Conformity
    The adjustment of people's behavior, attitudes, and beliefs to a group
  187. Informational Social Influence
    Follow the opinions of those we believe have accurate knowledge and believe they are doing it right
  188. Normative Social Influence
    Conform to obtain rewards that come from being accepted by other people while trying to avoid rejection
  189. Situational Influence on Behaviors
    See others engaging in a behavior, likely to be influenced by it
  190. Group Size and Conformity
    Conformity increased from 5 to 35% as group size increased
  191. Presence of a Dissenter in a Group and Conformity
    When someone else dissents, he/she serves as a model and it significantly reduces conformity
  192. LaPiere Study
    • Attitudes do not necessarily determine or predict our behavior
    • Attitudes and behavior are influenced by several factors
    • Attitudes influence behavior more strongly when the counteracting situational factors are weak
    • Attitudes have a greater influence over our behaviors when we are aware of them and when they are strongly held
    • General attitudes predict general behaviors and specific attitudes predict specific behaviors
  193. Persuasion
    The deliberate effort to change or impact one's attitude
  194. Norm of Reciprocity
    The golden rule: to get you to comply with a request you are given an unsolicited favor or gift
  195. Door in the Face Technique
    Persuader makes a large request expecting you to reject and then makes a smaller request believing you will be more likely to comply
  196. Foot in the Door
    Persuader gets you to comply with a small request and then presents a larger request thinking you will now be more likely to comply
  197. Low-balling
    Persuader gets you to commit to an action, then before you perform it the 'cost increases'
  198. Obediance (Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority Revisited)
    A form of compliance that occurs when people follow direct commands, usually from someone in a position of authority
  199. Milgram's Results
    • Variables which influenced obedience:
    •    -Remoteness of the victim
    •    -Closeness and legitimacy of authority figure
    •    -Cog in the wheel
    •    -Personal characteristics: differences were weak or nonconsistent
    •    -Cultural differences: similar results cross-culturally
    • Ethical issues of the research and the need to replicate this study
  200. Bystander Effect
    People are less likely to provide  help in groups
  201. Diffusion of Responsibility
    When others are present, the responsibility to help is divided among those present
  202. Latane and Darley Bystander Research
    • Bystander won't help if they don't notice
    • Decide if it's an emergency
    • If an emergency - decide whether to intervene
    • Take on responsibility - begin to question self-efficacy and confidence
    • Intervene regardless of cost
  203. We are more willing to help:
    • People who are more similar to us
    • Women over men
    • Perceived Responsibility: we are more likely to help those who we view as "true victims" based on our own personal assumptions
  204. Altruism
    Helping behavior that decreases one's own fitness
  205. Factors that Influence Attraction to Others
    • Proximity
    • Similarity in attitudes, values and interests
    • Same level of attractiveness
  206. Matching Hypothesis
    People tend to opt for those at their same level of attractiveness
  207. Walster and Berscheid: Love
    • Passionate Love: intensely emotional and physical
    • Compassionate Love: deep affection, share emotional intimacy and friendship
  208. Sternberg's Three Component's of Love
    • Intimacy: sense of closeness and sharing
    • Passion: emotional, physical
    • Commitment: efforts to maintain the relationship with difficulties and costs
  209. Prejudice
    Negative attitudes towards people based on their membership in a group
  210. Stereotypes
    Characteristics we attribute to people based on their membership to a group
  211. Discrimination
    Treat people differently and unfairly based on group affiliation
  212. Illusory Correlation
    People tend to overestimate the number of confirmations of an association between social traits
  213. Self-Serving Bias
    We attribute our successes to personal factors and our failures to situational forces
  214. Fundamental Attribution Error
    We assume others' failures are due to personal or internal factors (opposite to the self-serving bias)
  215. Group Membership
    We categorize ourselves as "in group" or "out group" and view our members in more favorable terms
  216. Homogeneity Bias
    Believe those in the "out group" are all the same, although we see the diversity within our own group
  217. Sherif's Findings
    • Took 2 groups of boy scouts to a camp and divided them into 2 groups - Eagles and Rattlers - and had them compete in games. They started raiding each others' camps and messing with each other - created an in/out group mentality
    • When faced with a common problem (like a need for water) they overcame this mentality and worked together to solve it
    • Working on a common task or goal (superordinate goal) is an effective way to reduce in/out group conflict

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