Drugs and Behavior Final

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Drugs and Behavior Final
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  1. 1. What basic ingredients are used to make beer?
    Beer and Ale is made with barley and hop (flavor). Then yeast is added and it converts the sugar into alcohol and carbon dioxide.
  2. 2. What does Bush and Miller make their beer from?
    Bush - barley and rice. Miller - barley and corn
  3. 3. What basic ingredients are used to make wine?
    • Wine is made from fruit such as grapes or any other fruits.
    • The yeast for wine is different than what is used in beer.
  4. 4. How is the alcohol content in wine?
    The alcohol content in wine is higher
  5. 5. What is the relationship between the proof of a distilled beverage and it’s alcohol content?
    You look at the proof on the bottle and half that number and that is how much alcohol the beverage has in it.
  6. 6. What is the alcohol content for most distilled beverages?
    Most distilled beverages normally has 35% to 40% Alcohol.
  7. 80 proof = 40% alcohol
    70 proof = 35% alcohol
  8. 7. What is an example of grain neutral sprits?
    Ever clear and PGA. PGA is short for pure grain alcohol
  9. 8. What is the amount of alcohol that is in grain neutral sprits?
    80% to 90% alcohol.
  10. 9. What is the U.S. per capita consumption of alcohol, according to the alcohol industry statistics?
    2.3 gallons per year and that is about 3/4 of an ounce per day
  11. 10. What was the U.S. per capita consumption of alcohol in the 1830’s
    5 drinks a day
  12. 11. How much beer, wine and 80 proof liquor are in one standard unit of alcohol (a standard drink)?
    .5oz of pure alcohol is in a standard unit of pure alcohol
  13. 12. 12oz of beer has how much pure alcohol?
    .5oz of pure alcohol
  14. 13. 5oz of wine has how much pure alcohol?
    .5oz of pure alcohol
  15. 14. 1.5oz of 80 proof has how much pure alcohol?
    .5oz of pure alcohol
  16. 15. What do scientists call a standard drink?
    a standard unit
  17. 16. How is binge drinking defined for men?
    For males drinking 5 or more alcoholic beverages in a day
  18. 17. how is binge drinking defined for women?
    For women drinking 4 or more alcoholic beverages in a day
  19. 18. What alternative terms have been suggested?
  20. 19. What are the two stages of alcohol breakdown (metabolism) in the body?
    Liver and Kidneys
  21. 20. What is the process of alcohol breakdown in the body?
    The alcohol is in the blood and enter the liver. The liver breaks it down into acetaldehyde then the acetaldehyde goes to the kidneys. The kidneys can not filter the acetaldehyde so they send it back to the liver. When the acetaldehyde reaches the liver, the liver turns the acetaldehyde into acetic acid and sends the acetic acid to the kidneys. Then the kidneys pass the acetic acid out of the body.
  22. 21. What is the rate of alcohol oxidation for adults?
    • It is approximately 100 milligrams of alcohol per hour per kilogram of body weight.
    • see chart on page 204
  23. 22. According to the current theory, how does alcohol work in the brain?
    It is a depressant drug and it affects several neurotransmitters, it stimulates the GABA receptor. it Begins with inhibition of the cerebral cortex, then that of the lower brain regions. Inhibitions of respiratory systems in the medulla, usually accomplished at Blood alcohol content levels in the neighborhood of 0.50 percent, the results is asphyxiation and death.
  24. 23. What are the 9 acute physiological effects of alcohol?
    1. Toxic Reaction, 2. Loss of body heat, 3. increased excretion of water, 4. an increase in heart rate, 5. constriction of coronary arteries, 6. disturbed patterns of sleep, 7. hangovers, 8. effects on pregnancy and 9. serious interactions with other drugs
  25. 24. What is the saint bernard myth?
    That the alcohol that a saint bernard brings someone who is cold will heat them up.
  26. 25. What are the 5 acute behavioral effects of alcohol?
    1. Blackouts, 2. impairment in sensory motor skills such as driving, 3. violence 4. aggression 5. Sex and sexual desire
  27. 26. What does Blackout mean?
    amnesia
  28. 27. What are the “disinhibition” theory?
    It holds that ingesting alcohol on a pharmacological level. it impairs the normal cortical mechanisms responsible for inhibiting the expression of innate or suppressed aggressive inclinations
  29. 28. What is the cognitive-expectancy theory?
    It says that learned beliefs or expectations about alcohol’s effects can facilitate aggressive behavior
  30. 29. What is an example of a drink that people believe makes them aggressive?
    tequila
  31. 5. What is the relationship between the proof of a distilled beverage and it’s alcohol content?
    You look at the proof on the bottle and half that number and that is how much alcohol the beverage has in it.
  32. 6. What is the alcohol content for most distilled beverages?
    Most distilled beverages normally has 35% to 40% Alcohol.
  33. 80 proof = 40% alcohol
    70 proof = 35% alcohol
  34. 7. What is an example of grain neutral sprits?
    Ever clear and PGA. PGA is short for pure grain alcohol
  35. 8. What is the amount of alcohol that is in grain neutral sprits?
    80% to 90% alcohol.
  36. 9. What is the U.S. per capita consumption of alcohol, according to the alcohol industry statistics?
    2.3 gallons per year and that is about 3/4 of an ounce per day
  37. 10. What was the U.S. per capita consumption of alcohol in the 1830’s
    5 drinks a day
  38. 11. How much beer, wine and 80 proof liquor are in one standard unit of alcohol (a standard drink)?
    .5oz of pure alcohol is in a standard unit of pure alcohol
  39. 12. 12oz of beer has how much pure alcohol?
    .5oz of pure alcohol
  40. 13. 5oz of wine has how much pure alcohol?
    .5oz of pure alcohol
  41. 14. 1.5oz of 80 proof has how much pure alcohol?
    .5oz of pure alcohol
  42. 15. What do scientists call a standard drink?
    a standard unit
  43. 16. How is binge drinking defined for men?
    For males drinking 5 or more alcoholic beverages in a day
  44. 17. how is binge drinking defined for women?
    For women drinking 4 or more alcoholic beverages in a day
  45. 18. What alternative terms have been suggested?
  46. 19. What are the two stages of alcohol breakdown (metabolism) in the body?
    Liver and Kidneys
  47. 20. What is the process of alcohol breakdown in the body?
    The alcohol is in the blood and enter the liver. The liver breaks it down into acetaldehyde then the acetaldehyde goes to the kidneys. The kidneys can not filter the acetaldehyde so they send it back to the liver. When the acetaldehyde reaches the liver, the liver turns the acetaldehyde into acetic acid and sends the acetic acid to the kidneys. Then the kidneys pass the acetic acid out of the body.
  48. 21. What is the rate of alcohol oxidation for adults?
    • It is approximately 100 milligrams of alcohol per hour per kilogram of body weight.
    • see chart on page 204
  49. 22. According to the current theory, how does alcohol work in the brain?
    It is a depressant drug and it affects several neurotransmitters, it stimulates the GABA receptor. it Begins with inhibition of the cerebral cortex, then that of the lower brain regions. Inhibitions of respiratory systems in the medulla, usually accomplished at Blood alcohol content levels in the neighborhood of 0.50 percent, the results is asphyxiation and death.
  50. 23. What are the 9 acute physiological effects of alcohol?
    1. Toxic Reaction, 2. Loss of body heat, 3. increased excretion of water, 4. an increase in heart rate, 5. constriction of coronary arteries, 6. disturbed patterns of sleep, 7. hangovers, 8. effects on pregnancy and 9. serious interactions with other drugs
  51. 24. What is the saint bernard myth?
    That the alcohol that a saint bernard brings someone who is cold will heat them up.
  52. 25. What are the 5 acute behavioral effects of alcohol?
    1. Blackouts, 2. impairment in sensory motor skills such as driving, 3. violence 4. aggression 5. Sex and sexual desire
  53. 26. What does Blackout mean?
    amnesia
  54. 27. What are the “disinhibition” theory?
    It holds that ingesting alcohol on a pharmacological level. it impairs the normal cortical mechanisms responsible for inhibiting the expression of innate or suppressed aggressive inclinations
  55. 28. What is the cognitive-expectancy theory?
    It says that learned beliefs or expectations about alcohol’s effects can facilitate aggressive behavior
  56. 29. What is an example of a drink that people believe makes them aggressive?
    tequila
  57. 1. When did the steady decline of cigarette smoking begin?
    When the surgeon generals report came out in 1963
  58. 2. What event may have started the decline of smoking?
    When the surgeon generals report came out smoking dropped over 50% of those 50%, 80% were men and 20% were women that quit smoking
  59. 4. What is the percent of people that smoke now?
    23%
  60. 5. How low and how high has the percent of smoking been?
    Has been as low as 19% and as high as 50%
  61. 6. What are the three primary elements of cigarette smoke and what are their physiological effects?
    Carbon Monoxide, Tar, and Nicotine.
  62. 6a. What are the physiological effects of carbon monoxide?
    Can cause carbon monoxide poisoning. Causes the oxygen in the blood to replaced with carbon monoxide and the blood circulates this around in the body and eventually the body tissues will die because of the lack of oxygen, such as tooth and gum disease, erectile and cardiovascular problems- blood vessels become hard and increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
  63. 6b. What are the physiological effects of Tar?
    The tar gums up the cilia which are hairlike cells that sweep away any foreign material. It stops the ciliary escalator from functioning properly, COPD, emphysema and lung cancer
  64. 6c. What are the physiological effects of Nicotine?
    Stimulates Center Nervous System receptors that are sensitive to acetylcholine. The receptors are called Nicotinic receptors. Nicotine makes the Nicotinic receptors release adrenalin and Nicotine releases dopamine in the Nucleus Accumbens.
  65. 7. What are the common health consequences of regular cigarette smoking?
    Tooth and gum disease, erectile disfunction, cardiovascular problems- blood vessels become hard, Heart attack and stroke, and Respiratory disease- COPD, emphysema, and lung cancer and Reduces lifespan at least by 8 years
  66. 8. What are the hazards of environmental (second-hand) smoke?
    • For nonsmoking adults, exposure to environmental smoke raises the risk of heart disease by 25 to 30 percent in both men and women. The risk of lung cancer is increased by 20 to 30 percent among nonsmokers who live with a smoker.
    • Environmental smoke is a cause of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), accounting for 430 deaths per year in the US. The risk is higher for children whose mothers were exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy and for children exposed during infancy.
    • Among children of parents who smoke in the home, there is an increased risk of lower respiratory illnesses such as bronchitis, middle ear disease, wheezing and childhood asthma.
  67. 9. According to the most recent National Household Survey, what percentage of Americans smoked a cigarette within the past month?
    23%
  68. 1. What are the major brand names of barbiturate drugs?
    Fiorinal, Phenobarbital one of Phenobarbital’s trade name was luminal, Amytal, Tuinal, Nembutal, Seconal, and sodium pentothal
  69. 4. What barbiturate drug (generic name) is used to prevent and control seizures and convulsions?
    Pentobarbital
  70. 5. What are the names of non-barbiturate sedative-hypnotic and anti anxiety drugs?
    Methaqualone called quaaludes, Meprobamate called Miltown
  71. 6. What are the brand names of the major benzodiazepines?
    Ativan, Dalmane, Diastat or Valium, Doral, Halcion, Klonopin, Librium, Paxipam, ProSom, Restoril, Serax, Tranxene, Xanax, Emetrol, versed,
  72. 7. What was Halcion used for?
    Halcion was used as a sleeping pill and makes people really aggressive. It has been outlawed in Europe but not in the U.S. Widely given to the elderly in nursing homes.
  73. 8. How are the benzodiazepines typically classified?
    by the specific receptors in the brain that they effect.
  74. 9. What is the major advantage of benzodiazepines over barbiturates?
    That it is very hard to overdose on these. It is said that you can take a whole bottle and will not die.
  75. 10. How does cross tolerance to sedative-hypnotics relate to surgical anesthesia?
    Because a drug exhibits a physiological resistance to that medication as a result of tolerance to a pharmacologically similar drug. The neurotransmitter recognizes the anesthesia for the sedative hypnotic
  76. 11. How do benzodiazepines work in the brain?
    they work on the central nervous system, acting selectively on gamma-aminobutyric acid-A(GABA-A) receptors in the brain. The effects are similar to alcohol. It intensifies the effect the inhibitory effect of the neurotransmitter GABA making the person feel much more relaxed.
  77. 12. What is Rohypnol?
    Used as a Date Rape drug, It was never legal in the U.S. It is like a soupped up xanax. It was called the Date Rape drug because a person could not see it, taste it and it had no adverse side effects.
  78. 13. What is Ambien?
    It is a sedative, also called a hypnotic and is used to treat insomnia
  79. 14. What is BuSpar?
    It is equivalent to Valium, us as an anti anxiety drug
  80. 15. What is GHB?
    Gamma hydroxybutyrate, Was sold at one time in Health Food stores, Bodybuilders liked this. Not legal anymore. Used as a Date Rape drug, and it is the most used date rape drug in Alabama.
  81. 16. What are the primary sources of nitrous oxide?
    Dentists, Ready Whip whipping cream in a aerosol can and a thing called a whippet it was used for cooking.
  82. 17. What common household products have abuse potential as inhalents?
    Glues, acateties, cleaning solutions that are areosol, paint sprays especially the gold and silver, paint thinners, gasoline, lighter fluids, hairsprays, deodrants, airfreshners, whipped cream, type writer correction fluid (white out) and Magic markers.
  83. 19. To what do the term "bagging" refer?
    Is spraying a product on a rag and holding it up over the nose and mouth. Can get oxygen.
  84. 20. To what do the term "hacking" refer?
    It is a term that comes from inhaling paint.
  85. 21. According to the most recent University of Michigan's Monitoring the Future survey, what percentage of eighth graders reported that they had used inhalants?
    8 percent
  86. 22. What happened to Scott Pecor?
    He died from inhaling Scotch Guard
  87. 25. What problems were associated with the use of Nitrates?
    Caused drooling, trembling, memory loss and psychotic behavior. Fatigue, irritability, depression anxiety and dementia.
  88. 1. What year was the first antipsychotic drug (Thorazine) introduced?
    1953
  89. 2. What does "target dosing" mean?
    • If a patient is doing really well and has been stable for a while the doctor should start to reduce the dosage. (You are targeting the symptoms). So then you don’t give the patient more than they need and reduce the risk for tardive dyskinesia
    • So the dosage should go up or down depending on the patients symptoms.
  90. 3. What are the typical (or older) antipsychotic drugs (brand names)?
    Thorazine, Haldol, Clozaril,
  91. 4. What are the daily recommended doses of Thorazine, Haldol, and Clozaril
    • Thorazine’s recommended doses are 100 to 500 mg a day
    • Haldol’s recommended doses are 1 to 12 mg a day
    • Clozaril’s recommended doses are 300 to 900 mg a day
  92. 5. What are the side effects of the typical (or older) antipsychotic drugs?
    Made the person feel really dry, makes them have to drink all the time. made their eye sockets feel really dry (they would usually drink sweetened drinks which made them gain weight) rapid weight gain, Made them feel like their brain was turned into jello could not concentrate or organize their thoughts. They had an effect on the brain that produced Parkinson like symptoms (gave them shakes) Made them feel really restless and jittery on the inside. Made them extremely sensitive to the sun, they could develop a heat related illness or get a really bad sunburn. Have constipation.
  93. 6. What type of drugs are frequently prescribed with an older antipsychotic drug to control drug induced movement disorders?
    Anti Parkinson drugs such as Artane and Cogentin also benadryl could be perscribed and laxitive drugs because they become constipated.
  94. 7. What causes tardive dyskinesia?
    Tardive dyskinesia is permanent brain damage that is caused by anti psychotic drugs.
  95. 8. What causes agranulocytosis?
    It is where the patients immune system shuts down. Caused by Clozaril.
  96. 9. What is an early sign of tardive dyskinesia?
    When they stick out their tongue it will wiggle like a snake.
  97. 10. Who will almost always get tardive dyskinesia?
    Patients who are prescribed 1st generation anti psychotic drugs
  98. 11. What are the brand names of common MAO inhibitors?
    Nardil and Parnate
  99. 12. What are the brand names of tricyclic antidepressants?
    Elavil, Norpramin, Parmelor and Tofranil
  100. ** SSRI’s are now called SNRI’s and a the names of them are Cymbalta, Effexor and Pristiq. **
  101. 15. What potential problem is associated with the use of MAO inhibitors?
    If you were not careful you could eat something that can kill you.
  102. 16. What drugs have been prescribed to treat bipolar disorder?
    Lithium carbonate, Depakote, Valproate, Risperdal, Geodon, Seroqul, and a combination of Zyprexa with Prozac.
  103. 18. What is Schizoaffective disorder?
    • Have some symptoms of schizophrenia and some symptoms of bipolar disorder.
    • **The Frasier Douglas definition is that we are really scared of this person, they have hurt people in the past and we are afraid that they are going to hurt us so we are going to give them double the amount of medication. They give them Large doses of anti psychotic drug and Large doses of Anti manic drugs.**
  104. Chapter 16
  105. 1. What does the term "primary prevention," mean?
    It is a type of program where you are working with very young children who has had no previous exposure to drugs, or working with pregnant mothers who live in High risk areas. Tries to keep kids totally away from drugs. DARE is one of them.
  106. 2. What does the term "secondary prevention," mean?
    It is a type of program where you are working with roughly middle school age children who have maybe tried alcohol, may have tried marijuana and should not have developed any habits so they should be able to stop. Tries to get them involved with other activities, and tries to give them self esteem so they will not become involved with drug use.
  107. 3. What does the term "tertiary prevention" mean? Is a type of program where you are working with usually older teenagers that are in high school. where they have been using drugs on a regular basis and have experienced problems with their drug use. Typically they are 18 and 19 year old kids that have been in or are in a drug treatment program or have been in trouble for their drug use.
  108. 4. What are the basic points of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse and Control Act of 1970?
    It is Federal Laws that classifies drugs into 5 groups called schedules.
  109. *On page 410*6. What drugs are classified as schedule I drugs?
  110. Fentanyl analogue, Heroin, and LSD. **Marijuana is special, it is classified as a schedule I drug.**
  111. 7. What drugs are classified as schedule II drugs?
    • Powder cocaine, Cocaine base including crack cocaine, Fentanyl,
    • Methamphetamine and PCP. Also Adderall and Ritalin but it does not tell you in the text.
  112. 8. What does Schedule I drug mean?
    Has no accepted medical use and High potential for abuse
  113. 9. What does Schedule II drug mean?
    Has limited medical use and high potential for abuse
  114. 10. What drugs are classified as schedule II drugs?
    Has limited medical use and high potential for abuse
  115. 11. What are the basic 4 points of the Drug Free Workplace Act of 1988?
    1. Implement regular drug testing. 2. Employers were supposed to put up a Big sign saying that this is a Drug Free work environment. 3. Provide literature and information about drug abuse and addiction. 4. (Not required) but most employers offered employee assistance programs.
  116. 12. What two actions were mandated in the 1986 executive order issued by President Regan? 1. Employee Assistance Program (EPA) for government employees 2. Pre Employment drug screening of federal employees as well as periodic, random drug testing.
  117. 13. What are the basic elements of the LST program?
    Called the Life skills training program, was developed in New York this is a behavioral psychology based program. The idea is to develop more effective behaviors. there are several components which are cognitive skills component, decision making skills component, stress reduction skills component, social skills component and a self directed behavioral skills component. What they did was took 4th 5th and 6th graders and gave them these classes and tried to build these skills so that they will be less likely to get involved with drugs.
  118. 14. What are the basic elements of the DARE program?
    Was started in Los Angels California. The way it was done there was they focused on kindergarden and elementary school children. There is a drug eduction for the children, teachers and parents. They try to get to know the children in able to identify the high risk kids in order to help them stay away from drugs.
  119. **There has been controversy about DARE, there have been studies saying that 10 to 15 years down the road that there is really no difference between the kids that went to dare programs and the kids that did not go to the dare program and says that this program does not really have long term effectiveness. **
  120. 15. What is the program CASA start?
    it a community based program that works with families, They provide services for the family, providing direction for the family and the children. They have after school activities and summer activities
  121. 16. What are the three drug programs that the text book talks about?
    Life Skills Training, DARE and CASA Start
  122. 17. What is Medication compliance?
    Encouraging and getting the patient to take their medication when they really don’t want to.
  123. 2. Drug courts
    Some people think that this is the answer. The idea behind drug courts is that the person is given a choice to either go to jail or go to drug court. The idea is if you go to drug court and you stay clean that you won’t go to jail. Usually for younger first time offenders.
  124. What class of drugs is Rohypnol in?
    benzodiazepine with general properties similar to those of Valium
  125. 17. What drugs are used to treat seizure disorders?
    Answer: Dilantin, phenobarbital, and Klonopin and Lamictal
  126. 2. How are barbiturate drugs typically classified?
    They are classified by their duration of action and includes onset, so how long it takes the the person to feel the effects and how long the person feel the effects
  127. 3. What are the acute effects of the barbiturate drugs?
    Respiratory depression, lowered blood pressure, fatigue, fever, unusual excitement, irritability, dizziness, poor concentration, sedation, confusion, impaired coordination, impaired judgment, addiction, and respiratory arrest, which may lead to death.**Each time you take a little bit more it drops your level of consensus and every time you take more of these drugs you move a little closer to death.**
  128. 13. What are the brand names of SSRI’s?
    Selective Serotonin Reuptake brand names are Celexa, Lexapro, Prozac, Paxil and Zoloft.
  129. 18. To what do the 'huffing" refer?
    Putting a product in a plastic bag over the nose and mouth to inhale the product. It leads to no oxygen getting into the system and is a quick way to get brain damage.
  130. 23. Why do some suggest that inhalants are gateway drugs?
    Because they are the first things that children can come in contact with and they are easy to get.
  131. 24. What particular group were reported as frequent users of Amyl Nitrate and Butal Nitrate during the 1960's and 1970's?
    • Smelling Salts - These were used in the Gay community because they figured out that if they placed this under the nose of their partner just as he orgasmed that their orgasm would be better.
    • Chapter 9
    • 2. How is alcohol dpenedency defined by DSM IV?
    • a.) Consuming greater amounts of over a longer period then planned
    • b.) A desire to stop drinking or several unsuccessful attempts to stop drinking
    • c.) spend a lot of time recovering from the affects of drinking
    • d.) Consumption continuting dispite knowledge that drinking either causes or exacerbates recurrent physical or psychological issues
    • e.) doesn’t attend important social functions because of alcohol
    • f.) needs to drink more to achieve previous levels of toxication
    • g.) syptoms of alchol withdrawal or drinks to relived alcohol withdrawal symptoms
  132. 3. What are chronic effects of Alcohol use
    • a.) Tolerance and Withdrawal
    • b.)Liver Disease- fatty liver and alcoholic cirrhosis, alcohol hepatitits
    • c.) Cardiaovasular Problems
    • d.) Cancer – pharynx and larynx
    • e.) Dementia and Wernicke Korsakoff – alchoholic dementia, Wernicke Korsakoff syndrome a person will show confusion, disoreientation and abnormal eye movement, body coordination. Because of a difficency in in Viatmin B1 also can have chronic severe amnesia
    • f.) Fetal alcohol Syndrome
  133. 4. What is co dependency?
    • a.) overinvolvement with the alcoholic
    • b.) Obsessive attemtps to control alcoholic behavior
    • c.) strong reliance on external sources of self-worth through approval of others
    • d.) an attempt to make personal sacrifices in a n effort to improve alcoholics condition.
  134. 6. What are Type 1 and Type 2 alcoholics?
    • Type 1 – develop problems with drinking later in life, generally function well in society, there is a genetic predisposition and also a strong environmental factor as well
    • Type2 – develop alcoholism early in life and significant antisocisal patterns of behavior. Strong genetic component, environmental had a negligible role.
  135. 7. What is the concordance rate for alchoholism in identical twins?
    Was found to be significantly higher than the concorndance rate for fraternal twins
  136. 8. How is Antabuse used?
    It causes the person an adverse reaction when you drink alcohol. When you don’t drink alcohol no adverse reactions.
  137. 9. What are the 12 steps of AA
    • a.) We admitted our lives are pwerless over alcohol and unmanageable
    • b.) Come to believe that a Power greater then ourselves can restore sanity
    • c.) Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood him
    • d.) Made searching and fearless moral inventory of ourselves
    • e.) Admited to God, to ourselves nd to another human being that exact nature of our wrongs
    • f.) Were entirely ready to have God remove all these defects of character
    • g.) humbly asked him to remove our shortcomings
    • h.) Made a list of all persons we had harmed and became willing to make amends to tham all
    • i.) Made direct amends to such people wherever possible except when to do so would injure them or others
    • j.) continued to make moreal inventory and when we were wrong promptly admit it.
    • k.) Sought through praer and meditiation to improve our conscious contact with God, as we understood him praying only for knowleldege of his will for us and the power to carry that out.
    • l.) Having ahd a spiritual awakening as a result of these steps we tried to carry this message to alcoholics and to practice these principles in all our affairs.
  138. 10. What alternative alcoholism nd addiction treatment programs have been proposed?
    SMART recovery, Men for Sobriety, women for sobriety
  139. 11. What is the caffeine content of an ounce of coffee, tea, and milk chocolate
    • Tea – 60 mg
    • Milk Chocolate – 44 mg
    • Coffee – 57 – 145 mg
  140. 12. What over the counter products contain caffeine?
    NoDoz and Vivarin tablets, pus other products ranging from cold rememdies, diruetics and weight control aids.
  141. 13. What health risks are reported to be related to excessive caffeine cosumptions?
    • a.) Cadiovascular – Heart attack or cadiac arrhythmia
    • b.) Osteoporosis and bone fractures
    • c.) Breast disease – fibrocystic lesions
    • d.) Effects pregnancy – low birth weight, miscarriage, premature birth
    • e.) panic attacks
  142. 14. Average daily consumption of caffeine?
    280 mg or 3 standard cups of coffee
  143. 15.
    • What techiques were described under the heading Prevention approaches that failed.
    • a.) Reducing the availability of drugs
    • b.) Punitive Measures – being arrested, prosecuted
    • c.) Scare tactics and negative education
    • d.) Objective information approaches
    • e.) Magic bullets and promotional campaigns – t shirts, caps, posters, rap songs, books
    • f.) Self esteem enhancement and affective education

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