Silvestri-Fluids and Electrolytes
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What is the normal adult level of calcium?
8.6 to 10 mg/dL
What is the normal adult level of magnesium?
1.6 to 2.6 mg/dL
What is the normal adult level of potassium?
3.5 to 5.1 mEq/L
What is the normal adult level of phosphorus?
2.7 to 4.5 mg/dL
What is the normal adult level of sodium?
135 to 145 mEq/dL
Where is magnesium concentrated?
- Within the cells
Where is potassium concentrated?
Within the cells
What are phosphorus levels evaluated in relation to and why?
Calcium levels, because they have an inverse relationship
Intravascular compartment def?
Refers to fluid inside a blood vessel
Intracellular compartment def?
Refers to all fluids inside the cell
Extracellular compartment def?
Refers to all fluid outside the cell, which includes interstitial fluid, blood, lymph, bone, connective tissue, water, and transcellular fluid
Interstitial fluid def?
Fluid between the cells
Who is at highest risk for fluid related problems?
Infants and older adults
The process whereby a solute (substance that is dissolved) may spread through a solution or solvent (solution in which the solute is dissolved)
Osmotic pressure def?
The force that draws a solvent from a less concentrated solute through a selectively permeable membrane into a more concentrated solute, thus tending to equalize the concentration of the solvent.
The movement of solvent molecules across a membrane in response to a concentration gradient
The movement of solutes and solvents by hydrostatic pressure
Hydrostatic pressure def?
The force exerted by the weight of a solution
The concentration of a solution
What is the normal osmolality of plasma?
270-300 milliosmoles/kilogram (mOsm/kg) water
What happens to fluids and electrolytes in diarrhea?
More electrolytes than fluid are lost which results in the extracellular fluid containing less electrolytes than the intracellular fluid
Isotonic solution def?
Has the same osmolality as body fluids (human cells)
- NS (0.9% sodium chloride)
- D5W (dextrose in water)
- D5W/1/4NS (dextrose in 0.225% saline)
- LR (lactated ringer's
Hypotonic solution def?
Has a lower osmolality than human cells
- 1/2NS (0.45% sodium chloride)
- 1/4NS (0.225% sodium chloride)
- 1/3NS (0.33% sodium chloride)
Hypertonic solution def?
Has a higher osmolality than human cells
- D10W (10% dextrose in water)
- D5W/NS (5% dextrose in NS)
- D5W/1/2NS (5% dextrose in 1/2NS)
- D5LR (5% dextrose in lactated ringer's)
Insensible water loss def?
Water than is lost through the skin and air expired from the lungs
What happens to the large volume of electrolyte containing liquids that move into the GI tract?
They return again into the extracellular fluid
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