Blood and Oxygen
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- returns fluid that leaks out in the capillary beds
- aids in body defense
- lymphatic system drains into the veins of the neck (it is partially part of the circulatory system in this way)
lymph does what?
reenters the circulation directly at the venous end of the capillary bed and directly through the lymphatic system
what does blood consist of?
- several kinds of cells suspended in a liquid matrix called plasma
- these cellular elements occupy about 45% of the volume of blood
Blood plasma is about what % water?
what are electrolytes?
inorganic salts in the form of dissolved ions in blood
what do plasma proteins influence in blood? (3 things) what are the 3 functions?
- (solutes) that influence blood pH, osmotic pressure, and viscosity
- various plasma proteins function in lipid transport, immunity, and blood clotting
what are the two types of cells in blood plasma?
RBC's and WBC's
name for RBC's and what do they transfer?
erythrocytes and they transport oxygen
name of WBC's and their function
leukocytes and function in defense
there is a third cellular element in blood plasma, what is it and what is it's function?
platelets, fragments of cells involved in clotting
which are there more of in the body, RBC or WBC?
Red blood cells
what is hemoglobin?
- iron-containing protein that transports oxygen
- red blood cells have hemoglobin, each cell containing up to 270 million hemoglobin molecules
where are RBCs made?
in bone marrow by erythropoiesis
what is the process of making RBCs
- takes 7 days to go from stem cell to maturity
- cells lose nucleus, mitochondria, and endoplasmic reticulum
- hormone EPO can be released
- live for 100-120 days
- then macrophages consume them when they are done in the spleen and the liver
what does the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) do?
stimulates erythrocyte production when oxygen delivery is low
what are the 5 major types of white blood cells?
how do WBCs function? and where are they found?
- function in defense by phagocytizing bacteria and debris or by producing antibodies
- found both in and outside of the circulatory system
what are platelets?
fragments of specialized bone marrow cells and function in blood clotting
when does the clotting mechanism begin?
when the endothelium of a blood vessel is damaged
fibrinogen converts to what? this forms a what?
fibrin, it forms a clot
what is a thrombus?
a blood clot formed within a blood vessel, it can block blood flow
what is hemophilia?
- when your blood does not clot
- it is a genetic mutation for coding a protein clotting factor
what is atherosclerosis caused by?
caused by the buildup of plaque deposits within arteries
what is the death of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage of one or more coronary arteries?
myocardial infarction (heart attack)
what is the death of nervous tissue in the brain, resulting from rupture or blockage of arteries in the head?
o2 what and co2 what?
o2 in and co2 out
in a given volume, is there more o2 in air or water?
animals require what kind of surfaces for gas exchange?
- large, moist respiratory surfaces
- gas exchange across respiratory surfaces takes place by diffusion
what are the 5 ways animals can conduct gas exchange?
outer surface, skin, gills, trachea and lungs
in mammalian lungs, air inhaled by the nostrils passes through the pharynx via what 5 things where gas exchange occurs by diffusion?
the larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoli
exhaled air passes over what to create sounds?
what coats the surface of the alveoli
the trachea, bronchi and bronchioles do what to incoming air?
clean and warm it
right lung has how many lobes? left?
right 3 left 2
what are the 2 phases of breathing?
inspiration and expiration
negative pressure breathing occurs with what?
- the contraction of the diaphragm and relaxation of intercostal muscles
- air flows into the lungs along the pressure gradient
- exhaling occurs with the relaxation of the diaphragm
what are respiratory pigments?
- proteins that transport oxygen
- they greatly increase the amount of oxygen that blood can carry
what do arthropods, vulcans and many molluscs use as their oxygen binding component?
hemocyanin with copper
hemoglobin also helps in the transport of what?
co2 and assists in buffering
co2 from respiring cells diffuses into the blood and is transported either in what 3 ways
- in blood plasma
- bound to hemoglobin
- or as bicarbonate ions
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