ch 14 PNS

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msmit458
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ch 14 PNS
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2013-05-13 11:41:00
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PNS
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  1. How many pair of cranial nerves do we have?

    How many spinal nerves?
    • 12 cranial
    • 31 spinal
  2. Give the number of the olfactory nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • Number 1
    • innervates nose (smell)
    • It is pure
    • found in the sensory neuron
  3. Give the number of the Optic nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • Number 2
    • innervates eyes (vision)
    • it is Pure
    • found in sensory neuron
  4. Give the number of the Oculomotor nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 3
    • innervates extrinsic eye muscle (eye movement)
    • it is mixed
    • found in sensory and motor neuron
  5. Give the number of the trochlear nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 4
    • innervates extrinic eye muscle (eye movement)
    • it is mixed
    • part of sensory and motor neuron
  6. Give the number of the trigeminal nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 5
    • innervates face (sensation)
    • it is mixed
    • part of sensory and motor neuron
  7. Give the number of the abducens nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 6
    • innervates extrinsic eye muscles (eye movement)
    • it is mixed
    • part of the sense and motor neuron
  8. Give the number of the facial nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 7
    • innervates face (sensations)
    • it is mixed
    • part of the sense and motor neurons
  9. Give the number of the vestibulocochlear nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 8
    • innervates ear (hearing and balance)
    • it is pure 
    • part of the sensory neuron
  10. Give the number of the glossopharyngeal nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 9
    • innervates tongue and pharynx (sensations)
    • it is mixed
    • part of the sense and motor neuron
  11. Give the number of the vagus nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 10
    • innervates most internal organs (blood pressure,heart rate,coughing, and sneezing)
    • it is mixed
    • found in both sense and motor neurons
  12. Give the number of the accessory nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 11
    • innervates tongue and pharynx (swallowing)
    • it is mixed
    • part of sense and motor neuron
  13. Give the number of the hypoglossal nerve, its number, what it innervates, whether it is pure or mixed, and what system it is found.
    • number 12
    • innervates tongue and pharynx (speech and swallowing)
    • It is mixed
    • part of sense and motor neuron
  14. Pneumonic for cranial nerve
    oh oh oh to touch and feel very green vegetables ah

    • olfactory
    • optic
    • oculomotor
    • trochlear
    • trigeminal
    • abducens
    • facial
    • vestibulochlear
    • glossopharyngeal
    • vagus
    • accesory
    • hypoglossal
  15. Describe the structure of a spinal nerve
    contains 3 layers of protective CT covering axons:

    Epineurium surrounds an entire bundle of fascicles

    Perineurium surrounds bundles of axons (fascicles)

    Endoneurium surrounds individual axons

    myelin sheath covers the axon
  16. Describe how spinal nerves branch (rami)
    Rami's are branched extensions of spinal nerves.

    • first nerve is the meningeal branch
    • Dorsal ramus
    • (2)rami communicantes
    • anteriro/ventral rami
  17. Define plexus
    a network of nerves that extends from the anterior ramus of adjacent nerves.
  18. What is a reflex?
    An action that is performed without conscious thoughts as a response to a stimulus.
  19. Describe the 5 functional components of a reflex arc?
    Sensory receptors--stimuli generates a receptor potential

    sensory neuron--axons propagate impulses from sensory receptors to integrating center

    integrating center- interneurons relay impulses from the sensory to motor neurons

    motor neuron- axons integrate impulses from the integrating center to effectors

    Effector--muscles or glands that respond to motor impulses
  20. Compare somatic and autonomic reflexes
    Autonomic reflexes-- involuntary contractions of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands 

    Somatic  reflexes-- voluntary contractions of  skeletal muscles
  21. what is the function of the autonomic nervous system.
    autonomic- have sensory interoceptors that help innervate cardiac muscles, smooth muscles, and glands
  22. what is the function of the somatic nervous system.
    Somatic--sensory neurons that innervates skeletal muscles
  23. What are the tow divisions of the ANS?
    Sympathetic and parasympathetic
  24. Compare the neurotransmitters used by the ANS(autonomic) with the SNS(somatic).
    sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons  release acetylocholine to effect skeletal muscles

    ANS- motor neurons release different things:

    all sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons release ach

    all parasympathetic postganglions neurons release ach

    most sympathetic postganglion neurons to release Norephrine.

    most sympathetic post ganglions release to sweat glands release ach

    adrenal glands release epinephrine and some and norepinephrine.
  25. Are motor neurons pure?
    no, no such thing
  26. What are the cranial nerves 1,2,8 and what do they innervate?
    Pure sensory nerves

    • olfactory (nose)
    • optic (eyes)
    • vestibulocochlear (ear)
  27. What are the cranial nerves 3,4,6 and do they innervate?
    Mixed nerves

    All three innervate (extrinsic eye muscles)

    • oculomotor 
    • trochlear
    • abducens
  28. What are the cranial nerves 5,7 and do they innervate?
    mixed nerves

    both innervate (face)

    • trigeminal
    • facial
  29. What are the cranial nerves 9,11,12 and do they innervate?
    mixed nerves

    innervate (tongue and pharynx)

    • glossopharyngeal
    • accessory
    • hypoglossal
  30. What is cranial nerve 10 and does it innervate?
    mixed nerve

    innervates (most internal organs)

    vagus
  31. Describe the location of cell bodies pathway of the sympathetic nervous system
    sympathetic system contains cell bodies of the first preganglionic neurons  located in gray matter of the thoracic and spinal column where its axons exit to a trunk ganglion.  

    The axons in the trunk  ganglion then synapses with the second motor neuron at the postganglion neuron where it terminates at it target.
  32. Describe the location of cell bodies pathway of the parasympathetic nervous system
    parasympathetic cell bodies of the preganglionic neurons are located in the brain stem and in the gray matter of the sacrum, where they synapse with postganglions in the terminal ganglia close to their target. 

    hence: craniosacral
  33. Compare the effects of the eye pupil in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • Sym:  dilates the pupil
    • Para:  constricts the pupil
  34. Compare the effects of the sweat glands in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym:  increases sweating
    • para:  no effect
  35. Compare the effects of the salivary glands in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym:  inhibits saliva secretion
    • para: stimulates saliva secretion
  36. Compare the effects of the digestive glands in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    sym: inhibits

    para: stimulates
  37. Compare the effects of the heart in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym: increases heart rate
    • para: decreases heart rate
  38. Compare the effects of the digestive tract in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym: slows down
    • para: speeds up
  39. Compare the effects of the urinary tract in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym: inhibits
    • para: stimulates
  40. Compare the effects of the adrenal glands  in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym: secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine
    • para: no effect
  41. Compare the effects of the blood vessels in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym: dilates
    • para: none
  42. Compare the effects of the metabolism in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym: increases
    • para: none
  43. Compare the effects of the mental activity in the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
    • sym: increases
    • para: none
  44. Describe the fight or flight response and which division mediates the response
    The sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine hormones from the adrenal glands to stimulates the body in action mode in times of stress and crisis.
  45. why is the parasympathetic nervous system called  the rest and digest division?
    parasympathetic division responses support the body functions by conserving and restoring body energy for future flight or flight responses.

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