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What are the primary functions of leaves, stems and roots?
Roots- Absorption of water and minerals, anchorage, food storage (some more than others), reproduction (some).
Stems - Translocate water and minerals to the leaves; transport food (sap) downward from the leaves to the roots.
Leaves - the major photosynthetic (food making) organ of a plant
Compare and contrast monocots and eudicots.
monocots- 1 cotyledonStore some nutrients & transfer nutrients from other plant partsVascular bundles in ring around the center
eudicots- 2 cotyledons (dicots)Supply nutrients for seedlingsVascular bundles in center
What is a vascular bundle?
A strand of conducting vessels in the stem or leaves of a plant, typically with phloem on the outside and xylem on the inside.
What is a double compound leaf?
one in which each leaflet of a compound leaf is also made up of secondary leaflets.
What do auxins and gibberellins do?
Auxin (indoleacetic acid) –phototropism
Gibberellin (70 types) – growth hormone for elongation
What are tropisms? Name some.
The uneven distribution of auxin, due to environmental cues
Phototropism – response to or away from light
Gravitropism – response to or away from gravity
Name various ways seeds can be dispersed.
- Hooks and spines for attaching to clothing of humans
- Swollen pods that burst and hurl seeds
What 3 components interact to provide homeostasis in living organisms?
receptor intergrator and efector
Name 4 types of organ systems and describe how each helps with homeostasis.
How do open and closed circulatory systems differ?
osed circulatory systems have blood that does not flow in defined blood vessels. Examples are insects and how their organs are bathed continually in "blood".
Open circulatory systems have blood that flows in vessels. Humans have this system as blood flows in veins, arteries and capillaries.
Describe the heart structure in fish, amphibians, reptiles and humans.
Fish – heart has single atrium and single ventricle; pump sends blood to gills
Amphibians – heart has 2 atria and 1 ventricle
reptiles-divided into 2 halves; right half pumps blood to lungs and left half to rest of body
humans- Four chambers Heartbeat Pulse
What are the two main portions of human blood?
plasma and formed elements
Compare and contrast the human respiration system with that of an insect.
Insects are special in that they have many trachea controlled by spiracles
What is the principle function of human kidneys? How about the human liver?
k-excrete nitrogenous wastes (urea and uric acid)*maintain salt-water balance of blood*maintain acid-base balance of blood
l-Detoxifies blood Produces plasma proteins albumin and fibrinogen Destroys old red blood cells Converts hemoglobin to products in bile (bilirubin and biliverdin)
What are the components of the human immune system?
Lymphatic organs(red bone marrow, Thymus gland, lymph nodes, spleen)TonsilsAppendix
How do specific and non-specific immunity differ?
- Non-specific immunity – indiscriminately repels pathogens
- Specific immunity – needs an antigen (usually a protein or carbohydrate
Name 5 barriers that serve as non-specific human immunity?
- Skin and mucous linings are physical barriers
- Oil gland secretions kill or weaken bacteria on the skin
- Ciliated cells in upper respiratory system sweep mucous and trapped particles into mouth where they can be swallowed
- Stomach has highly acidic pH
- Intestinal and vaginal bacteria prevent pathogens from invading
Describe how the antigen-antibody system works in mammals.
Antibodies – immunoglobulin proteins that act lock-in-key with specific antigens
Antigen-antibody complexes (immune complexes) mark antigens for destructionBlood type (A,B,AB,O
Compare the central nervous system in humans, insects and planarians.
How does a neuron work?
sends electrical impulses to the brian
Name at least 3 parts of the human brain and describe the function of each.
- Cerebrum – major center of coordination; 2 halves; inside totally white matter; gray covering (Cerebral Cortex)
- Cerebral Cortex -- >billion cell bodies; interprets and initiates sensation, voluntary movement and higher thought processes
- Parietal lobe – receives information from skin, skeletal muscles and joints
- Frontal lobe – primary motor area; voluntary commands to muscles
- Prefrontal area – integration, reasoning and action
What is the peripheral nervous system?
- Bundles of axons (nerves)
- 12 pair of cranial nerves
- 31 pair of spinal nerves
How do the somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ?
s-Accept sensory inputs and send out motor responses
a- Automatically and involuntarily regulates glands,
Name at least 5 types of sensory inputs in mammals.
- Sense of balance (rotational equilibrium and gravitational equilibrium)
- Cutaneous receptors
What is population age structure?
Name 3 types of spatial distribution patterns in populations.
clumped, random, uniform
Compare and contrast exponential with logistic population growth.
- Exponential growth occurs when numbers increase by a certain factor in each successive time period.
- Logistic growth is population growth that starts with a minimum number of individuals and reaches a maximum depending on the carrying capacity of the habitat.
How do density dependent and density independent mortality factors differ?
- Density-independent factors -- weather and natural disasters
- Density-dependent factors – biotic factors (predators, parasites, pathogens); portion of population affected depends on population density
How are R and K strategists different?
- R-strategists (mobile, large reproductive rate, high mortality)Opportunistic species
- K-strategist(less mobile, low reproductive rate, high survival)Equilibrium species
How does co-evolution work?
change in order to stay alive
What is succession?
The orderly process of one community replacing another
How are niche and habitat different?
Niche – “occupation”; the role the species plays in the environment
Habitat – “address”; where can I go to find one; WHERE a species lives
Name and describe several types of inter and intra specific competition.
- intra- other organis
Describe the competitive exclusion principle.
No two species can occupy the same niche at the same time
What is an estuary? Describe its primary productivity.
The tidal mouth of a river, where the tide meets the stream.