Cognitive Psych

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sj3990
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Cognitive Psych
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2010-06-04 14:08:40
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  1. Process vs. Product
    • Process: what the mind does - operate on ideas, concepts
    • Product: consequences of the process (demonstrations of comprehension) - operate on considerations of mental representations
  2. concepts
    the general ideas that enable the categorization of unique stimuli as related to one another
  3. Imagistic Mental representations
    • like a mental picture
    • direct, analogical, preserves visuo-spatial relations
  4. Mental Rotation study
    the more rotation needed to compare them - the longer it takes --> its as if you are actually rotating them! (mental representation = imagistic)
  5. Image Scanning
    • images can be scanned like physical percepts
    • (the greater the distance the longer the scan time)
    • imagistic mental representations preserve spatial relationships!
  6. Dual Code Theory
    • faciliates memory - represent concepts verbally (symbolic) and visually (analog - match)
    • its easier to memorize concrete concepts (b/c they are symbolic and analog) whereas abstract concepts like integrity are only verbally represented
  7. Relational - Organizational Hypothesis
    imagery improves memory because it produces associations between stimuli (more connections between information)
  8. epiphenomenal - mental images?
    • maybe they aren't what you are using to process the world - its just what you think you are using
    • b/c blind participants show "imagery effects"
  9. abstract propositions
    • maybe you don't retrieve a picture but some concept
    • it only feels like a picture b/c we don't have any other way of understanding it
    • propositional representations are retrieved and image/verbal codes are created
  10. mental models
    • simulations that you run
    • mental representations that you can manipulate
  11. route vs survey spatial information
    • route - navigate through environment - series of landmarks - for novices
    • survey - birds eye views - like memorizing maps - for experts
  12. embodied cognition
    • 1 contemporary theory: mental representation is encoded in a way to reflect the actual thing in the real world (the experiences of it)
    • - the nail orientation, throwing the ball
  13. action-compatibility effect
    another contemporary theory of representations - mental representations are embodied - contain motions/images/activities associated with doing those things in the real world

    language is encoded as action/movements (if sentence is about giving, hand moves faster in direction as if they are giving)
  14. concept vs. category
    • concept: knowledge one has about specific things in the world
    • category: a collection of instances that are treated the same (where concepts get put)
  15. three types of categories
    • Natural - occur in nature
    • Artifact - created by humans
    • Ad hoc - created on the spot to suit a specific need
  16. Rule - governed concepts
    • we categorize something if it fits a defining set of features (like pattern recognition) - an all or none basis
    • not everything fits this - its hard to come up with defining features - family resemblance relations not definitions - based on fuzzy similarities not set definitions
  17. prototype categorization
    • prototype: category member with most representative features (an average)
    • serves as an important mental representation of the concept
    • BUT prototypes are fuzzy - they can change depending on where you are/what things are associated there
  18. typicality effect
    • with prototype categorization
    • gradient of category membership - differences in how well specific instances represent a concept
  19. exemplar categorization
    • you have a set of examples in your head - compare what you see to specific examples in memory
    • no abstract representation/definition
    • but this is fuzzy, different boundaries, and storage problems!
  20. theory categorization
    • concepts embedded in and consistent with people's background knowledge and folk theories
    • world knowledge shapes our understanding of concepts!
    • problem solve to decide if something is in a category or not
    • categorization involves knowledge of relative importance of features, relations among features, and purpose of category
  21. Hierarchical Network Model
    the way we represent information! - connects concepts

    • superordinant - top - all thigns share it
    • basic - the most typical things
    • subordinant - the specific things
  22. which level of hte hierarchical association model is privileged?
    • teh basic level
    • if asked to name an animal - say cat, not siamese cat
  23. cognitive economy
    • only have to represent property once in a network
    • but there are problems with teh hierarchical association system - faster to say that a dog is an animal than a dog is a mammal even though the concepts are closer
  24. semantic networks
    • another model hypothesis other than the hierarchical thing
    • not organized in a higher to lower order - things that are similar are next to each other - interrelated concepts
  25. spreading activation
    activation spreads along the pathway of a node activating associated nodes - relationships are conveyed through node links
  26. schemas
    • another way to organize related concepts/events
    • frames - abotu physical structure of the environment
    • scripts - represent routine activities
  27. meta representations
    mental representation of another mental representation - for child's play - imagining, ability to pretend
  28. theory of mind
    ability to infer that others, like ourselves, have mental states
  29. functional equivalence hypothesis
    states that visual imagery is mentally represented and functions the same as perception
  30. latent semantic analysis
    • mathematical procedure for automatically extracting/representing teh meanings of propositions expressed in a text
    • allows for comparison of two texts in terms of similarity in propositional content and to answer questions about a text
  31. feature comparison model
    first, characteristic and defining features are assessed in answer to to simple categorization questions, second, defining features are retrieved
  32. language, what is it?
    • shared, symbolic system for communication
    • mental code for memory, thought, categorization
    • a defining characteristic of humans (what makes us different?)
  33. linguistic
    • how languages are structured, how they change over time
    • language as an object
  34. psycholinguistics
    • study the psychology of language
    • how language is processed and represented in the mind
    • language as an activity
  35. Behaviorism Psycholinguistics ideas
    • idea that language is purely a function of shaping (hear what other people say - figure out what is appropriate)
    • language learned through experience!
  36. chomsky psycholinguistic ideas
    • language is recursive/generative - we make up novel sentences!
    • reinforcement (behaviorism is an insufficient mechanism for acquiring language) --> children don't get negative feedback (don't get told what they said was wrong, only the right way to say it), children often have systematic errors in language

    children are born with an innate language capacity (prewired for language)
  37. language acquisition device
    • Chomsky's idea - the prewired ability in humans for language
    • - mental organization that faciiltates language learning learning in that environment
  38. Broca's aphasia
    aphasia; general neurological disorder where langauge is disrupted

    problem in speech production - stuttering/stammering, repeating is hard, spontaneously speak
  39. wernicke's aphasia
    problem in speech comprehension - can't comprehend speech but can produce it (what they say doens't make sense though - no meaning)
  40. phonology
    • most simple/basic level of linguistic analysis
    • the sounds of language/rules that exist for combining them
    • phoneme: smallest unit of speech
  41. why is it hard for a computer to understand language?
    • speech environment is noisy - we can ignore background noise
    • variability between speakers (same sound produced in different ways like accents)
    • speech is continous and not segmented (people can segment it htemselves but a computer can't see the segments)
    • there is no one to one correspondence between acoustic input and the speech sounds we perceive (we can ignore this variability)
    • sounds are not transmitted one by one (often transmitted simultaneously or in relation to others) (coarticulation)
    • speech production/comprehension is so amazing/complex
  42. phonemic restoration effect
    people listened to sentences - able to fill in teh missing letter based on prior knowledge (priming)
  43. McGurk Effect
    • interpretation of sounds is influenced by what you see and the sounds you are hearing (listening and visualizing)
    • articulatory information influences perception
  44. semantics
    • study of linguistic meaning
    • words = pointers to concepts (language you hear acts as instructors for what information is to be retrieved from memory)
    • denotation: the definition
    • connotation: additional nuances
  45. polysemous words
    words that have multiple meanings - lexical ambiguity
  46. lexical ambiguity
    • keep both meanings active until you get some expectations
    • different concepts increase/decrease in activation over teh course of the sentence
  47. dominant vs subordinant meanings
    • when context supports dominant meaning (the one most likely), only this meaning is activatedd
    • when context supports the less common meaning/is ambiguous, both meanings are initially activated
  48. syntax
    the arrangement of words and phrases into sentences according to grammar (particular orders/structures)
  49. deep structure of syntax vs. surface structure
    • deep structure: abstract underlying representation of the idea of the sentence (meaning)
    • surface structure: actual realization of the sentence (actual words in it)
    • can have different deep structures with the same surface structure and vice versa
  50. syntactic parsing
    • grouping a sentence into phrases to determine meaning
    • occurs immediately as each word is encountered (its fast, efficient, but you can settle on the wrong syntax in this way)
    • you interpret it as you read it (done "on-line")
  51. garden path sentences
    sentences that as you read them, the syntax suggests a particular meaning but you soon realize that you selected the wrong syntax
  52. pragmatics
    • how people use language in context (in the real world)
    • for discourse and conversation
  53. speech acts
    • notion that speech is typically produced for a reason - to perform some act
    • indirect vs. direct (direct seems more rude)
  54. cooperative principle
    • rules of communication - participants agree to say things that are appropriate to the conversation
    • assume that speakers are always cooperative
    • if you violate any rule - you send addditional information to your listerner
  55. prosody
    • intonations, signatures, accents, sarcasm
    • tell you more about meaning!
  56. Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis regarding language and thought
    • Strong Version (linguistic determinism): the language you speak determiens the way you think
    • Weak Version (linguistic relativity): the language you speak can influnce how you think but doesn't need to
  57. lexical decisions cog lab
    • we have a mental dictionary, a lexicon, information about words
    • words are arranged by semantic content (response time to say if it is a word should be faster if it is semantically related to the first word than if unrelated)
  58. word superiority coglab
    • we are good at recognizing visual patterns!
    • detection of K is better when presented with a word than when presented alone
  59. for eye-tracking, what happens when teh word difficulty increases?
    • fixation time increases - look at it longer (also increases with interest)
    • saccades decrease
    • see a lot of "looks back" to go back to other parts of the sentence to figure out what is going on
  60. eye movement assumptions
    • immediacy - right as you look at something you try to interpret it
    • eye --> mind: the eye remains fixated on a word as long as the word is being actively processed during reading (the longer fixation = the longer processing it)
  61. which words are you likely to skip while reading?
    • teh functional words (short/unimportant, not meaningful)
    • do not skip content words (the verbs/nouns that have meaning)
  62. 3 ways to represent a sentence in memory
    • surface form: exact words/ideas (rarely make a surface form b/c its a lot of work) - declines immediately
    • propositional: the gist of core ideas (remember particular concepts/ideas - the meaning) - declines more slowly
    • situational: inferences derived from the text (best for comprehension - you understand the underylying meaning! - sticks around for awhile!
  63. morphemes
    minimal unit of speech used repeatedly in a language to code a specific meaning (built up of phonemes)
  64. mental lexicon
    dictionary of long term memory that humans rely on in speaking/listening in reading/writing
  65. universal grammar
    refers to the genetically determined knowledge of human language that allows children in all cultures to rapidly acquire the language to which they are exposed (language acquisition device, LAD)
  66. observation/introspection in studdying problem solving
    • observation = see what you do
    • introspection = ask what they are thinking about

    problems - can't tell just by watching them or hearing what they say! don't know exactly what they are thinking
  67. insight
    the point at which teh relationships between elements in a porblem facilitate the development of a solution - aha moment
  68. what is problem solving?
    any goal-directed activity - actions/thoughts that you utilize to satisfy some accomplishment
  69. teh parts to the systematic formula for problem solving
    • problem space
    • goal state
    • initial state
    • intermediate steps
    • operators
    • production systems

    these are the particular elements to any problem!
  70. problem space
    all the possible steps and possibilities for a problem

    part of the systematic formal way for problem solving
  71. goal state
    part of formula for problem solving

    its the end - what you want to accomplish
  72. initial state
    part of formula for problem solving

    its where you start - where you are when the problem is given to you
  73. intermediate steps
    part of problem solving formula

    teh subgoals you must make to reach the goal state
  74. operators
    the tools/methods you use to reduce current and goal state
  75. production systems
    • rules for solving problems
    • can be implicit/explicit - state what you can/can't do
    • particular things you must adhere to
  76. Heuristics strategy to solve problems
    • use rules of thumb (basic way)
    • are practical shortcuts
    • common sense - fast, easy
    • don't always lead to the correct solution
  77. Algorithms method for solving problems
    • opposite of heuristics
    • thorough analysis - systematic (think about every possibility)
    • slow, laborious, but a guaranteed solution
    • how computers operate
  78. analogies probelm solving strategy
    looks for similarities between current problems and ones from teh past --> good for science/math problems
  79. metcognition
    monitoring of ones cognitive processes and states of knowledge
  80. stages of creativity
    • preparation - studying, learning, formulating solutions
    • incubation - put problem aside and do other things
    • illumination - when crucial insight seizes consciousness
    • verification - outlines of the solution must be filled in and checked
  81. fixation - creativity block
    blocking of solution paths to a problem that is caused by past experiences relatedd to the problem
  82. functional fixeddness
    tenddency to see objects as having only one single typical use
  83. working backward problem solving
    • start at teh goal state in order to see the path/subgoals
    • easier to envision a set of subgoals if you start at teh goal state and work toward the initial state
    • only when goal state is well ddefined
  84. means end analysis for problem solving
    • compare ones state to the goal state and finding an operator to reduce the ddifference between the two states
    • repeatedly compares states and seeks an operator
  85. brute force search
    • exhaustive, systematic search through teh problem space - search all subgoals/operators
    • easy to apply
    • teh number of states can increase - complex combinatorial interactions!
  86. difference reddduction
    to solve a problem - reddduce the ddidfference between your state and the goal state
  87. hill climbing
    moves you twoardd a subgoal that puts you farther from teh goal state - you're not thinking about the big picture goal!
  88. what can go wrong in problem solving?
    • failure to understand/represent the problem
    • failre to see connections
    • distraction from irrelevant info
    • functional fixedness (expectations for how to use an object)
    • set effects - expectations about how to solve a particular problem
    • failure to transfer - (a transfer is making an analogy to a previous problem)
  89. obstacles to problem solving - experience
    can hinder insight!
  90. convergent thinking
    thinking that proceeds toward a single answer
  91. divergent thinking
    thinking that moves in many possible directions towards solving a problem
  92. reasoning
    ddrawing conclusions based on principles/evidence
  93. judgement/decision making
    evaluating/selecting among alternatives
  94. normative vs. descriptive methodd
    • normative - how people should dod it (reasoning/decision making)
    • descriptive - how people actualy do it
  95. syllogistic reasoning
    • formal procedure that ensures accuracy if rules of logic are followed
    • evaluating whetehr a conclusion necessarily follows deductively from two premises that are assumed to be true
  96. belief bias
    • when a syllogisms conclusion is true or agrees with a persons beliefs, then the syllogism will be judged as valid
    • when people accept any and all conclusions that happen to fit with their system of beliefs
  97. modus ponens vs. modus tollens
    • ponens - confirmation bias
    • tollens - disconfirmation bias
  98. falsification principle
    to test a rule, it is necesary to find situations that disconfirm teh rule!
  99. framing effects for reasoning (gains/losses)
    • reasoning influencedd by whether a problem is framed in terms of gains/losses
    • if it emphasizes gains - people are risk averse
    • if it emphasizes losses - people are risk takers
  100. illicit conversion
    refers people to converting ALL A are B into All B are A
  101. decisions under certainty
    decisions that are made under conditions of certainy - we know that particular courses of action will result in particular outcomes
  102. decisions under risk
    cases in which easch state of nature is likely to occur with a known probability
  103. decisions under uncertainty
    refer to cases in which teh probabilities of states of nature are unknown - you must estimate teh probability that a particular situation will occur
  104. representative heuristic
    events that are represetntative or typical of a class are assigned a high probability of occurrence
  105. availability heuristic
    if relevant examples can be readily retrieved from memory, then the class of events must occur with a high probability
  106. simulation heuristic
    construction of a mental model of a situation and then "running the model" to predict the course of events

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