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2013-04-23 00:06:42

Intro To Psychology
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  1. Define psychology
    Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processesand the application of the knowledge acquired through this study to improve
  2. How do psychologists and psychiatrists differ?
    Psychologists are individuals who have obtained a masters degree or doctoral degree,in psychology. All psychologists are not trained in the treatment of psychological
  3. How have researchers used naturalistic observation to gather data?
    Researchers have used naturalistic observation to study behaviors of organisms intheir natural environment. This method has been used to study naturally occurringbehaviors of animals in the wild or people in social settings.
  4. Describe the different fields of psychology.
    Developmental psychologists focus on the development of human behavioral,cognitive, and social processes throughout the life span.
  5. Industrial/organizational psychologists focus primarily on
    the application ofpsychological principles to organizations in a way that makes workers more satisfiedand more effecient in their jobs.
  6. Cognitive psychologists focus
    on learning and thinking processes.
  7. Social psychologists study
    the impact of social situations on the behavior andcognition of individuals, such as how an individuals behavior may differ in alarge group versus in isolation.
  8. Educational psychologists focus
    on improving education and training by applyingthe processes of learning and memory to academic situations.
  9. Clinical psychologists study
    a variety of psychological symptoms, includingsituational distress related to trauma, crisis situations, and bereavement, and thealleviation of those symptoms through treatment
  10. What is shaping?
  11. Describe positive and negative reinforcement and punishment
    In positive reinforcement, a reward is used to increase the likelihood that theindividual will repeat a behavior. In negative reinforcement, the removal of an adversestimulus also increases the likelihood that the individual will repeat a behavior Withpunishment,
  12. What is the difference between a primary and a secondary reinforcer?
    Similar to the distinction between unconditioned and conditioned stimuli, primaryreinforcers are those that are naturally enjoyable (such as food), whereas secondaryreinforcers are objects or events that become associated with a primary reinforcer.
  13. Outline the various reinforcement schedules. Which schedule is most effective?
    Continuous reinforcement involves reinforcement every time a desired behavioris performed.
  14. What is modeling? Describe Banduras thoughts on modeling.
    Modeling involves learning through observing and imitating another's behavior.Bandura proposed that most learning takes place through modeling rather thanthrough direct reinforcement
  15. What is an instinctive drift?
  16. What does it tell us about the limitations of conditioning?
    An animal's natural instinctive response will limit its capacity for operant conditioning.