reasons to accept an argument that the speaker makes to an
3 artistic proofs
Ethos – believe , depends on the personal character of the
Pathos- think – on putting the audience in a certain frame of mind
Logos- feel – the proof or apparent proof provided by the words of the speech itself. Often called rational proofs.
believe , depends on the personal character of the speaker
think – on putting the audience in a certain frame of mind
feel– the proof or apparent proof provided by the words of the speech itself. Often
called rational proofs.
Debatable point or proposal you want listeners to accept
personal credibility or character traits that make a speaker believable and worth of the
comparing things that are generally different but share a recognizable similarity
Reasoning by metaphor
a polarizing speaker who appeals to audiences more on the basis of emotion and
personal charisma than on reasoned arguments.
starting with specific instances or examples then formulating a reasonable conclusion.
starting with a principle(the premise) and applying it to aspecific case
comparing likenesses between two similar things, arguing that what happened in a known
case will likely happen in a similar case
Parallel case or literal analogy
supporting material offered to back up claim
Evidence, data, or grounds
argument about right or wrong, moral or immoral, beautiful or ugly
the standards used for making evaluations or judgments
links one phenomenon to another that preceded it and led to it.
argument about existence, causation, or predictions
satisfaction pattern- good for value or definition speeches; sets forth standards for judgement or for inclusion, in a category, and then shows how the proposal
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs
basic needs, security and safety, love and belonging, esteem, self actualization
survival needs, air, food, water, shelter
Security and safety
explain how to gain peace of mind, job security, safety, comfort, better health, physical safety, and so on
Love and belonging
show how your topic helps your listeners be better friends, creates a stronger community, or builds ties within people
demonstrate your respect for your listeners, and mention their accomplishments when appropriate. Find a way to make them feel competent to carry our your proposal, Let them know that their ideas opinions and concerns are significant
challenge your listeners to look beyond themselves and reach out to others. Encourage them to dream big dreams, and accomplish big things.