A questionthat the audience answers mentallyrather than out loud.
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic.
The audience's perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind.
A statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussedin the body.
A conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity.
A conclusion that generates emotional appealby fading step by step to a dramatic final statement.
A detailed outline developed during the process of speech preparation that includes the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, main points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and bibliography of a speech.
The pattern of symbolization and indentation in a speech outline that shows the relationships among the speaker's ideas.
A list of all the sources used in preparing a speech.
A brief outline used to jog a speaker's memory during the presentation of a speech.
Directions in a speaking outline to help a speaker remember how she or he wants to deliver key parts of the speech.
The literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.
The meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase.
A book of synonyms.
Words that refer to tangible objects.
Words that refer to ideas or concepts.
Discourse that takes many more words than are necessary to express an idea.
The use of vivd language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas.
An explicit comparison, introduced with the world "like" or "as," between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
A trite or overused expression.
An implicit comparison, not introduced with the word "like" or "as," between two things that are essentially different yet have something in common.
The pattern of sound in a speech created by the choice and arrangement of words.
The simile arranged of a pair or series of related words, phrases, or sentences.
Reiteration of the same word or set or words at the beginning or end of successive clauses or sentences.
Repetition of the inital consonant sound of close or adjoining words.
The juxtapostion of contrasting ideas, usually in parallel structure.
Language that does not stereotype, demean, or patronize people on the basis of gender, race, religion, disability, sexual orientation, or other factors.
The use of "he" to refer to both women and men.
Communication based on a person's use of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.
A speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience.
A speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation.
A carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented from a brief set of notes.
Presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many times it has been rehearsed.
The loudness or softness of the speaker's voice.
The highness or lowness of the speaker's voice.
Changes in the pitch or tone of a speaker's voice.
A constant pitch or tone of voice.
The speed at which a person speaks.
A momentary break in the vocal delivery of a speech.
A pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizatons such as "uh," "er," and "um."
Changes in a speaker's rate, pitch, and volume that give the voice variety and expressiveness.
The accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language.
The physical production of particular speech sounds.
A variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.
The study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.
Motions of a speaker's hands or arms during a speech.
Direct visual contact with the eyes of another person.
A visual aid used to show statistical trends and patterns
A graph that uses one or more lines to show changes in statistics over time or space.
A graph that highlights segments of a circle to show simple distribution patterns.
A graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to show comparisons among two or more items.
A visual aid that summarizes a large block of information, usually in list form.
A complete set of type of the same design.
The process of creating, reinforcing, or changing people's beliefs or actions.
Mental Dialogue with Audience
The mental give-and-take between speaker and listener during a persuasive speech.
The portion of the whole audience that the speaker most wants to persuade.
Question of Fact
A question about the truth or falsity of an assertion.
Question of Value
A question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so forth of an idea or action.
Question of Policy
A question about whether a specific course of action should or should not be taken.
Speech to Gain Passive Agreement
A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience that a give policy is desirable without encouraging the audience to take action in support of the policy.
Speech to Gain Immediate Action
A persuasive speech in which the speaker's goal is to convince the audience to take action in support of a given policy.
The first basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Is there a serious problem or need that requires a change from current policy?
Burden of Proof
The obligation facing a persuasive speaker to prove that a change from current policy is necessary.
The second basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: If there is a problem with current policy, does the speaker have a plan to solve the problem?
The third basic issue in analyzing a question of policy: Will the speaker's plan solve the problem? Will it create new and more serious problems?
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problem and the second main point presents a solution to the problem.
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which the first main point identifies a problem, the second main point analyzes the causes of the problem, and the third main point presents a solution to the problem.
Comparative Advantages Order
A method of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main point explains why a speaker's solution to a problem is preferable to other proposed solutions.
Monroe's Motivated Sequence
A method or organizing persuasive speeches that seek immediate action. The five steps of the motivated sequence are attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and action.
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as credibility.
The audience's perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic. The two major factors influencing a speaker's credibility are competence and character.
The credibility of a speaker before she or he starts to speak.
The credibility of a speaker produced by everything she or he says and does during the speech.
The credibility of a speaker at the end of the speech.
Creating Common Ground
A technique in which a speaker connects himself or herself with the values, attitudes, or experiences of the audience.
Supporting materials used to prove or disprove something.
The name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal of a speaker. The two major elements of logos are evidence and reasoning.
The process of drawing a conclusion on the basis of evidence.
Reasong from Specific Instances
Reasoning that moves from particular facts to a general conclusion.
Reasoning from Principle
Reasoning that moves from a general principleto a specific conclusion.
Reasoning that seeks to establish the relationship between causes and effects.
Reasoning in which a speaker compares two similar causes and infers that what is true for the first cause is also true for the second.
An error in reasoning.
A fallacy in which a speaker jumps to a general conclusion on the basis of insufficient evidence.
A fallacy in which a speaker mistakenly assumes that because one event follows another, the first event is the cause of the second.
An analogy in which the two cases being compared are not essentially alike.
A fallacy which assumes that because something is popular, it is therefore good, correct, or desirable.
A fallacy that introduces an irrelevant issue to divert attention from the subject under dicussion.
A fallacy that attacks the person rather than dealing with the real issue in dispute.
A fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two alternatives when more than two alternatives exist.
A fallacy which assumes that taking a first step will lead to subsequent steps that cannot be prevented.
Appeal to Tradition
A fallacy which assumes that something old is automatically better than something new.
Appeal to Novelty
A fallacy which assumes that something new is automatically better than something old.
The name used by Aristotle for what modern students of communication refer to as emotional appeal.