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Leadership is reciprocal, use of power to get things done
Leadership is the ability to influence people toward the attainment of goals
What does leadership involve?
the use of power in influence individuals to get things done
What is leadership
it is a process not a property of a person
What is influence?
the most important part of leadership, it describes the action or process by which one person is able to direct another individual towards a desired outcome
What does early leadership suggest?
Heroic or Great Man theories
What did these early theories focus on?
What about the Ohio State and Michigan studies?
Ohio State = 1) consideration behaviors
2) Initiating structure
What is consideration behavior?
leaders is mindful of subordinates. They are friendly and develop teamwork
What is initiating structure?
extent to which a leader is task oriented and directs subordinates work activities toward goal achievement. These leaders give instruction, plan, emphasize deadlines, and detailed work schedules
What about the Michigan Studies?
- Two types
- 1) Employee centered leaders
- 2) Job centered leaders
What are employee centered leaders?
high performance goals and supportive behavior toward subordinates
What are job centered leaders?
less concerned with human needs and goal achievement. They are more about results.
What is power?
the probability that a person can carry out their own will despite resistance
What did French and Raven say?
5 different types of power.
- 1) Reward = reward/benefits
- 2) Coercive = Fear of punishment
- 3) Expert = knowledge
- 4) Legitimate = right to power/authority
- 5) Referent = friendship/identification
What does research say about the five powers?
These powers are perceived and not actual powers that affect the desired outcome
What do effective leaders do with power?
use it to influence individuals to contribute to the organizations goals
What is the situational approach?
Task-motivated: leaders who focus on completing a given task
Relationship motivated: leaders who focus on people and relationships
What is global leadership?
Individualism: individuals identify with themselves. They care about themselves.
Collectivism: Individuals identify with the group
Masculinity: achievement heroism, assertiveness, and material success.
Femininity: values of relationships, cooperation, group decisions, no specific gender roles, quality of life
What are examples of contemporary leadership?
Transformational and transactional
transforms and inspires people
people are motivated by reward and punishment
What is fraud?
Second type of theft, the first is called robbery
What's a positive work environment?
exists when employees have positive feelings about and feel ownership for the organization
What about hiring ethical individuals?
screen applicants, hiring practices, thorough and skillful interview.
What about providing ethical training?
employee awareness training that says whats acceptable and how all employees will be affected by unethical decisions and behavior
What about model ethical behavior?
Being an example.
What is labeling?
What an individual communicates to others
Whats a code of ethics?
communicates what is and isn't acceptable.
What's an open door policy?
employees have access to management. If this isn't available employees will lose perspective of how their decisions and behavior affects others
What are employee assistance programs?
programs designed to help employees deal with personal problems and challenges. Might include marital problem, substance abuse, etc.
What about traditional organizations?
traditionally many organizations operated under a management by instruction philosophy where employees were told exactly what to do and how to do it
What is management by objective?
employees are instructed on what needs to be done then given their freedom to pursue their given objectives
What is management by values?
everyone within the organization knows and lives by certain defined values such as hard work, integrity, creativity, and trust
What is managing?
planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
What is leadership?
*there is no set definition for leadership but we use PIG
What is a leadership based organization?
Everyone is influencing others to reach the organizations goals.
Is leadership a process?
Yes, and its an action between the leader and the follower
What is influence referred as?
How many followers must leaders have?
At least one
Who is William James?
Great men and Heroic theories. These are based on the personal traits of the leader
Why do we criticize great men theories?
they were only applicable to few individuals who changed the course of history
*most of the public still believes the great men theory
What are traits?
Personal characteristics of a leader
What did Stogdill say?
In 1974 analyzed over 160 previous leadership studies. Found that both trait and situational factors are important to leadership
What is trait theory?
Appealing because it allows people to focus on and learn specific traits to become more effective leaders. Can be applied to almost any organization.
What are behavioral approaches?
how behavior influences leadership. Examples of these are the Ohio st and Michigan studies
What did Robert Blake and Jane Maton say about the leadership grid?
measured leadership based upon three separate dimensions
- 1) concern for people
- 2) concern for production
- 3) motivation
What did Leadership Grid mean?
behavior method limited because it only focused on what mangers did most of the time and didn't suggest how it might change depending on the situation
What about Hersey and Blanchard?
no one style of leadership should be applied in all situation. Effective leaders must match their leadership style to both the competence and commitment of their followers
What about the situational approach?
effective leaders must be able to understand what employees need and adopt their own leadership styles to meet those needs.
What about situational approach and change?
It is more of a major change to a follower focus than a leader focus
*400 out of 500 fortune 500 companies have used situational approach
What about the contingency theory and Fiedler?
a leaders effectiveness depends on how well the leaders style fits the context. Contingency theory affects both style and situations.
What does Fiedler say?
leadership styles are either task motivated or relationship motivated
because it does not require an individual to be an effective leader in every situation, it has gained popularity
What is path goal?
requires a leader to use the style of leadership that best fits subordinates motivational needs
What is expectancy theory?
workers will be motivated if they believe they are capable, believe the efforts will result in a certain outcome, and believe the work is worthwhile.
What is path goal based upon?
based on personal characteristics of the follow and the environmental pressures and demands to obtain goals.
What are the 5 dimensions of path goal?
- 1) valences: leaders must understand what followers believe
- 2) Insturmentalist: high performance outcomes
- 3) Expectancy: by understanding expectancy
- 4) Equity of reward: levels and types of rewards
- 5) Accuracy of role perceptions: clearly define the route to effective employee performance
What is path goal theory?
match situations with leader behaviors
What about Robert Houses's 4 categories of path goal?
- 1) directive = tell employees what's expected of them
- 2) supportive = similar to consideration behavior, leaders show interest and concern for followers
- 3) Participative leadership = leader invest ideas and opinions from subordinates, but makes final decision
- 4) Achievement oriented = established attainable goals and challenges team members to achieve them.
Why path goal?
- provides framework to better understand how directive, supportive, participative, and achievement oriented leadership styles influence others
- *takes into account expectancy theory
- *its complex so not used in development programs
* been criticized for not involving followers in decision making process
What about power and influence?
power = to be able to
What about transformational traits?
emotional stability, agreeableness, and integrity
What about charismatic leadership?
type of transformation leadership
*ignites the fire of followers
* these leaders are confident, competent, and good communicators
*Technology is never the actual cause of transformation
*Technology is never the actual cause of transformation
Good to great?
great companies don;t need to focius on motivating employees, managing change, or creating alignment within the organization. Under the right conditions these will take place. Greatness is a conscious choice.
What is level 5 leadership?
Personal humility and professional will. May seem like shy and self effacing leaders
*look for extraordinary results without individual footprints
What about authenticate leadership?
genuine and real leaders.
- * important for social and political leaders
- *don;t change their values regardless of the situation
- * requires leaders to understand themselves
What is culture?
set of norms, ideas, beliefs, and way of thinking of a group of individuals
*by 10 basic value systems are in place
What are three common ways to identify culture?
nationality, language, and religion
What about globe project?
Humane orientation: degree to which a society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair and caring for others
*globe validates and extends hofstedes original work
difficult to define, no one code or law
- how to attain release from the cycle of rebirth that bind mankind
one of the fastest growing religions
* Muhammad, 1/5 of the worlds population
Islam = religion
Muslim = people practicing religion
Arab = speak Arabic
Islam = religionMuslim = people practicing religionArab = speak Arabic
Back in the industrial revolution?
12-14 hrs a day. 6 am to 8 pm. Chile 48 hrs. Europe 35.
= moral principles and values than an individual uses to decide whether an action is appropriate.
actions of a person or organization that may negatively influence or impact another individual
values and principles that are used to evaluate whether the collective behavior of members of an organization are appropriate.
What are ethical theories?
- 1) consequences of managers actions
- 2) rules or duties of managers
consequences or end result of an action
moral obligation and responsibilities of individuals to do the right thing
act in a way that has a positive outcome
greatest good for the greatest number of people
utilitarianism with individualistic approach.
decision making should be based on whether an action is right or wrong. Disclose all information
Moral right approach?
individuals have fundamental rights and liberties that can't be taken away
All members of society should be treated fairly
treatment of individuals should not be based on arbitrary characteristics
all rules distributed equally to all members of society
- 1) Perceived pressure
- 2) Perceived opportunity
- 3) Perceived rationalization, "high need to achieve type of people."