Medsci 203 Lec 8

Card Set Information

Medsci 203 Lec 8
2013-04-23 04:51:57
Medical science

Acute Inflammation: Cytokines and cells
Show Answers:

  1. What are cytokines?
    Cytokines are low-molecular weight proteins produced by inflammatory (and other) cells during inflammation
  2. Which experiments found the active agent TNF (tumour necrosis factor)
    • bacterial products were injected to mice elicited the production of a protein which caused some tumours to become necrotic
    • People with cancer undergo wasting (cachexia). Shown in mice infected with sleeping sickness parasite Trypanosoma. Mediator of cachexia was called cachextin-same protein as TNF
  3. Why is TNF only have limited use as a anti cancer agent?
    • induces unpleasant flu-like symptoms
    • is not effective against most common cancers
  4. At low concentration cytokines lead to what?
    • induce protein synthesis
    • vasodilation
    • vasopermability
    • expression of EC adhesion molecules that recruit inflammatory cells
  5. At high concentrations of cytokines induce?
    • fever
    • the coagulation casase
    • progressive development of scar tissue, fibrosis
    • (over time) cachexia
  6. Neutrophils contributef __ % of granulocytes, their function is to ________________________ and their harmful effect is _______.
    • 75%
    • phagocytosis of tissue debris, microbes
    • tissue injury
  7. Eosinophil contribute ____% of granulocytes, their function is to_________ and their harmful effect is _____
    • 1%
    • anti-parasitic
    • allergy
  8. Mast cell/ basophil contribe < ___% of granulocytes. Their function is ________ and their harmful effect is _____
    • 1%
    • regulation of inflammation
    • allergy
  9. Injury without infection generate_____?
    Sterile inflammation
  10. ECM fragments can be DAMPS, what is an example of this type of DAMP? and what is its receptor?
    • hyaluronan
    • toll-like receptors, TLRs
  11. HMGB1 from chromatin is an example of DAMP, what type of DAMP is it and what is its receptor
    • intracellur proteins
    • TLRs,RAGE
  12. DNA and RNA is a type of DAMP, what is its receptor
  13. P2X7 purinergic is a receptor for what type of DAMP?
  14. Crystal is a type of DAMP, what is a couple  examples of this type of DAMP? What is its receptor?
    • MSU, cholesterol
    • components of inflammasomes
  15. signalling from what two receptors activates inflammasomes
    TLR & P2X7Rs
  16. When caspase-1 becomes activated what does it cleave into an active form? What other cytokine is released
    • pro-IL-1β to IL-1β
    • IL-1α
  17. what is the function of  IL-1β and IL-1α?
    Induce ECs to become adhesive for leukocytes
  18. What is margination?
    Recruitment of circulating neutrophils requires adherence to the endothelium
  19. When do neutrophils leave the axial stream and move to the plasmatic zone?
    When blood flow rate decreases with loss of plasma and increased viscosity
  20. How do neutrophils contact the epithelium? How is this mediated?
    • by rolling across the surface
    • P- and E- selections on stimulated ECs and glycoproteins and sugar residues
  21. When does firm adhesion with flattening occur?
    Occurs when inflamma