Psyc 357 Exam1

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Psyc 357 Exam1
2013-04-23 08:15:45

Psyc 356 exam 1
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  1. What is Ethnocentrism?
    A factor affecting psychology. Means:the tendency, sometimes deliberate, but often unintentional, to view psychological knowledge from own national or ethnic positions.
  2. What is Historiography?
    studies the ways people obtain and disseminate (spread) historical knowledge. Focuses on methods used in the study and depiction of psychology’s history.
  3. What is Ideological knowledge
    One of the four types of knowledge. Found in human values about good and evil, right and wrong, etc. Different from pop beliefs because its often supported by tradition or powerful authorities. Use religion (most powerful value) as explanation for behavior. Values often play positive role.
  4. What is Legal Knowledge
    Appears in form of legal prescriptions. Provides legitimate reasons for important decisions (marriage, raising children, life and death, etc). Ex: Hitting children is bad in our country, but acceptable in others. Directly affects our judgements, emotions, and thoughts.
  5. What is Neurasthenia
    Was used to describe a mixture of symptoms involving anxiety and depression. They attributed these symptoms to the weakness of the nervous system. Very imprecise label for practically any psychological symptom.
  6. What is Placebo Effect?
    Happened during mesmerism, when patients reported disappearance of pain, and other signs of improvement, just because they “believed”.
  7. What is pop psychology?
    Psychological knowledge designed specifically for mass consumption through media (books, news, internet, etc.). Tends to be simplified. Examples: Self help books, psychological shows like Dr. Phil.
  8. What is popular belief?
    One of the four types of knowledge’s. Broad assumptions. Working hypothesis people use to make sense of themselves and other people. Describes various aspects of human life properly and receive support from science; but in other cases are inconsistent and inaccurate.
  9. What is Scientific Knowledge?
    One of the four types of knowledge’s. Accumulated through research, empirical observation, and evaluation of psychological phenomena. Incorrect for 3 reasons 1)incorrect assumptions 2)imprecise descriptions 3) poor applications
  10. What is Zeitgeist?
    Stands for the prevalent social climate or the “spirit” of a particular time or generation. Favorable social climate grows psychology as a discipline and profession. Social opposition can hold back research. E.g human sexuality was not accepted socially, therefore it was an inappropriate field to study.
  11. What is Atomism?
    Notion that matter is made up of small indivisible particles.
  12. What are Caritas and Cupiditas?
    Caritas stands for good intentions, and Cupiditas stands for excessive desire, violence, and greed. They are in continual battle against each other. They divide the self into struggling entities like lust versus chastity and cravings versus moderation.
  13. What is Emanation Theory?
    The second view of cognition (3 total). Sensation is possible because of a discharge coming from objects. They make an impression on our senses and causes sensation and then thought.
  14. What is Epistemology?
    The branch of philosophy that studies the nature of knowledge, its foundations, extent and validity. Early epistemology grew almost entirely out of observations and their critical discussion.
  15. What is Holism?
    Concept that everything is interconnected in the world and body, and everything exists with integration of yin and yang (being opposed to one another but connected at the same time).
  16. What is Idealism?
    Fundamental view suggesting that the facts of mental life can be sufficiently explained in mental terms. The soul is nonmaterial, immortal, and can exist alone, separated from the body.
  17. What is Material Monism?
    All things and developments, including psychological processes, no matter how complicated they are, have one similar material origin.
  18. What is Materialism?
    View that the human soul originated from the same matter as any other material object. Mental life explained my existence of nature of matter.
  19. What is Melancholy (melancholia)?
    Most common label for what we call Depressive today. Either deficiency or surplus causes mood problems. Occurs from misbalances of blood and other humors. Higher incidence in the spring and fall.
  20. What is Scholasticism?
    Dominant Western Christian school of thought of the Middle Ages based on religious doctrines.
  21. What is Theology?
    The study of nature of God and religious truth. This gradually expanded its monopoly on psychological knowledge.
  22. What are Animal Spirits?
    Light and roaming fluids circulating rapidly around the nervous system between the brain and the muscles, and eventually come in contact with the brain. This causes various passions (6-Wonder, love, hatred, desire, joy, sadness).
  23. What is Deism?
    The belief that God has created the universe, but abandoned it afterward. This encouraged a scientific view.
  24. What is Dualism?
    The tradition that claimed the existence of “parallel” spiritual and material realities.
  25. What is Empiricism?
    Understanding the soul as mechanical movements in the body. Reductionist view.
  26. What is Humanism?
    Emphasized the uniqueness of the subjective side of the individual; the sense of freedom, beauty, and responsibility., Based on the renewed interest in classical antiquity and the humanities.
  27. What is Instrumentalism?
    Human action is reasonable as long as it justifies this individuals goals.
  28. What is Mechanism?
    Almost everything about human beings can be effectively explained in mechanical terms. La Mettrie believed this.
  29. What is Mataphysics?
    the branch of philosophy that examines the nature of reality including the relationship between mind and matter.
  30. What are Monads?
    Infinite number of spiritual forces.
  31. What is Mysticism?
    Belief in the existence of realities beyond perceptual reflection or scientific explanations, however accessible by subjective experience. Experiences are considered divine and appreciated/sought out by many.
  32. What is Naturalism?
    Observable events should be explained only by natural causes, and not assuming that divine, paranormal, or supernatural ideals exist.
  33. What is "Noble Savage"?
    A term made by Rousseau, that suggests that people were born essentially good when they lived under the rules of nature, before modern civilizations were created.
  34. What is Psychological Parallelsim?
    The view that suggests that physical and mental processes are set to develop in parallel courses.
  35. What is Reductionism?
    Approach to explaining the nature of complex processes nu reducing them to the interaction of their elements or underlying processes.
  36. What is Scientific Rationalism?
    The view that focuses on the mechanical character of the universal and human beings as the consequence.
  37. What is Solipsism?
    Theory claiming the self as the only entity that can be known and verified.
  38. What is Tabula Rasa?
    When a child’s mind is a “clean board”. Experience make who they are.
  39. What is witchcraft?
    The alleged practices or arts of witches. The acquisition of supernatural power, sorcery, enchantments, and sexual contacts with evil spirits.
  40. What are the three recurrent themes in psychology’s history?
    1) The mind-body problem. 2) The interaction of biological and social factors in human behavior and experience and (Nature vs Nurture) 3) The balance between theoretical knowledge and its practical applications (theorist vs practitioner)
  41. Know what each state of the three recurrent themes
    • The mind-body problem states that your mind can control physical problems. For example if your sick and you believe you will get better, you will most likely get better. The mind affects our body.
    • Nature-Nurture states we are either born with certain qualities (shyness, violence), or we become that way through the way we grow up, such as experiences.
    • Theorist-Practitioner states on one hand that science should be a pursuit of understanding nature. On the other hand it states science should serve a purpose of improving humanity.
  42. Why is mesmerism viewed as unscientific today?
    Because Mesmer believed that illness was caused by blocking of invisible body fluid  (animal magnetism) and that it could be removed just by touching them. Obviously we know today that the body doesn’t have invisible body fluid, but we do have blood.
  43. Give an example of a scientific fact and popular belief related to human behavior
    • Popular Belief-People explain human behavior by shared assumptions. 
    • Scientific Fact- Behavior and experience is based on empirical observation
  44. At least three factors should help us understand the complex interaction among society and psychological knowledge, What are they?
    Resources, social climate, and academic tradition.
  45. What is Hammurabi’s Code?
    A legal document reflecting the social developments during Hammurabi’s rule. Gods view as actual beings. People carried good relationships with these Gods to bring wealth, good relationships, victory in war, etc.
  46. What was Heraclitus (530–470 BCE) concept of soul called? What was a found substance of the soul ?
    Concept of soul is called psyche. Specific particles of ever-living fire was a founding substance.
  47. Democritus (460–370 BCE)  believed that the atoms of the soul are active on three different levels in the human body, what are these levels?
    Around the brain, close to the chest and heart, and in the region of the liver
  48. What are the four categories or levels that the Stoics believed the existing world appears?
    1) Nature, and the impact of pneuma on it is relatively insignificant. 2) Plants, Pneuma is more active and responsible for growth and procreating of matter. 3) Animal kingdom, pneuma is more dynamic and enables matter to grow and procreate, but ALSO to feel and perceive. 4) Human level (highest level of interaction), pneuma, in the most complete form, represents human soul, which is part of nature.
  49. According to Plato what are the three dimensions that describe the world?
    1) Reality (world of the ideal forms). 2) Material world created by God 3) Psychological, which is a reflection of the ideal through material.
  50. Epicurus distinguished between three types of needs in terms of desires? What were they?
    1) natural and necessary for survival desires. Like hunger or thirst that have a physical limit. 2) Natural, but non necessary, desires such as the desire to eat only expensive food. 3) Vain, or empty desires. Includes desires for: power, wealth, and fame. These are difficult to satisfy because there is no natural limit.
  51. What is the life circle in teachings of Indian philosophers?
    Believed that all living creatures undergo a cycle of rebirth and their soul transmigrate from one body to another. Believe there are immediate or delayed consequences. Everything happens for a reason.
  52. Describe psychological views found in the Advaita tradition.
    An idealist view that believes there is on one substance, ideal, and the material world is only a reflection of the ideal. What we perceive as “real”, is actually only appearances or illusions. Belief in existence of the real material world is caused by ignorance. To free from this ignorance you have to understand the existence of pure consciousness.
  53. What is the ideal person in Confucius teachings?
    A balanced person, and doesn’t stop doing the right things due to fear of unpleasant consequences.
  54. Hsun Tzu (298–238 BCE) viewed human nature as? Why did people learn to act morally in his views?
    Viewed human nature as evil. people learn to act morally because of their fear of punishment.
  55. What are Tung Chung-Shu (179–104 BCE) beliefs on Yin and Yang?
    Human nature is associated with yin (dark, feminine, soft, and hidden) and yang (bright, masculine, firm, and open) and forms natural emotions.
  56. According to Galen  what  were the three forms of pneuma?
    1) Brain-responsible for imagination, reason, and memory 2) Heart-vital pneuma regulates the flow of blood. 3) Liver-nutrition and metabolism
  57. What were the Roman Stoics’ views of human emotions?
    The ultimate goal of a person’s existence was to have a state of mind free from immediate desires for pleasure. Most people are slaves of their own passions. Rational minds allows to be free from disturbing emotions.
  58. How did Thomas Aquinas view the soul?
    Soul is the form of the body that gives life and energy. The soul without the body would have no individuality, because such uniqueness comes from matter. The soul should play an active role in sensation and particularly in complex processes of thinking.
  59. What were Thomas Aquinas’ five faculties of the soul?
  60. vegetative faculty- nutrition, procreation, and growth 2) Sensitive faculty- engaged in sensations, including higher cognitive functioning. 3) Motor Faculty-responsible for movements 4) Appetitive faculty-involved in motivation and will 5) intellectual faculty-highest form of reason
  61. Al-Farabi (870–950 CE) had allegories to describe different social groups what were they?
    Ideal social group is compared to a virtuous city (people are good and happy, just like the limbs of healthy body, and functioning properly. Other groups with different behavior were the inhabitants of the ignorant city, the dissolute city, turncost city, and the straying city. Souls of these people are contaminated and face extinction.
  62. What is behavioral asceticism?
    Abstinence from material pleasures. People should exercise moderation, pray systematically, display humility, tolerance, repetance, and patiences, and keep a simple life.
  63. The term renaissance means rebirth. Rebirth of what?
    Great change. Basically its a time of new ideas, and old ideas being reintroduced and ideas flourishing more.
  64. What are the main points of Robert Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy?
    Anxiety and mood problems.
  65. What was the The Malleus Maleficarum?
    The Hammer of the Witches. A book that describes Catholic and Protestant communities, 400 and 500 years ago, watching witchcraft trails.
  66. According to Descartes what area of the brain served as a connector or doorway between the soul and the body?
    Pineal gland in the center of the brain.
  67. What were Hume’s four personality types?
    1) The Epicurean displays elegance and seeks pleasure, 2) The Stoic is a person of action and virtue. 3) The Platonist is the person of contemplation and philosophical devotion. 4) The Skeptic is the person of critical thinking.
  68. What was Kant’s “Golden Rule”?
    Your actions, to be considered moral, should become a universal law for others to follow. Should be innate: all human beings should have a natural predisposition for moral behavior.
  69. La Mettrie(1709–1751) believed that almost everything about human beings can be effectively explained in what terms?Mechanical terms.
    Mechanical terms.