Natural Selection & Evolution AND Phytoremediation

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Natural Selection & Evolution AND Phytoremediation
2013-04-23 17:10:02
BIO Lab 1051

Labs 5 & 6, Final Exam Review
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  1. A repeated tested, large scientific idea that ties together information from several different sources 
  2. Hypothesis
    A tentative explanation about a phenomenon
  3. Theory
    Scientific idea that ties together information from several different sources
  4. The Theory of Evolution
    States that all organisms descend from a single, common ancestor
  5. Phylogeny
    The evolutionary history of a group of species
  6. What could you use to determine relationships between organisms
    Phylogenic Tree
  7. How many RNA nucleotide bases code for an amino acid?
    3 RNA bases, which all together are called codons
  8. Transcription
    When DNA gets converted to RNA
  9. Trophic Levels (In Order)
    • Stops of the ecosystem:
    • 1.  Primary Producers
    • 2.  Primary Consumers (Herbivores)
    • 3.  Secondary Consumers (Carnivores)
    • 4.  Tertiary Consumers (The "top" Carnivores)
  10. Pollutants
    • Man-made substances
    • Excessive quantities of natural substances that contaminate the environment
  11. Producers
    Produce their own energy through photosynthesis
  12. Consumers
    Obtains energy by feeding on other organisms
  13. Eutrophication
    The process of increasing rates of plant growth and decay due to the addition of excess nutrients into an aquatic system
  14. Phytoremediation
    The use of plants to clean up the environmental pollution
  15. Is carbon dioxide in the atmosphere natural and is it required for beneficial greenhouse effect?
    Yes, it is natural to have carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and is required for the beneficial greenhouse effect
  16. Ecosystem
    A community of biological organisms plus the non living components with which the organisms interact
  17. Global Warming
    Excessive amounts of carbon dioxide added to the atmosphere can lead to excess heat being trapped and a rise in the temperature
  18. What is the difference between the ocean dwelling stickleback fish and the pond dwelling stickleback fish?
    • Some pond dwellers have no pelvic spine or armor plates
    • pond dwellers have shorter dorsal and pelvic spines
  19. Conditions that have to be present for natural selection to occur?
  20. Analogous Structures
    • Various structures in different species having the same appearance, structure, or function but have evolved separately 
    • Do not share common ancester
  21. Homologies
    Similarities that exist between organisms due to common ancestry
  22. The pelvic spines of the stickleback fish are homologous to ?
    the hind limbs of a tetrapod (4 legged organism)
  23. RNA
    Enzyme that is responsible for transcription
  24. Sepciation
    • The process by which one species splits into 2 distinct species
    • 2 populations evolve over time as separate entities with physical and behavioral differences
    • 2 Types: reproductive isolation & genetic divergence
  25. Independent Variable
    (Predictor Variable) the factor that is deliberately changed or manipulated
  26. Dependent Variable
    (Response Variable) the factor that changes as result of the changes made in the independent variable
  27. Control
    Baseline value for dependent variable
  28. The purpose of what section of a primary source scientific paper is to analyze and interpret the results of your experiment through figures and graphs?
  29. What are the primary sources of info?
    Papers written by scientists that describe original research that they have conducted (Scientific Papers)
  30. What section of a scientific paper summarizes the experiment?
  31. Correct order for a scientific paper
    abstract. intro. methods. results. discussion. acknowledgements. literature cited
  32. A good hypothesis is?
    Testable and falsifiable
  33. Order of the steps for the scientific method?
    Observations. Questions. Hypothesis. Prediction. Experiment. Data. Conclusion
  34. Constants
    Conditions that are the same for all levels of treatment in an experiment
  35. Replication
    Allows the experiment to account for random variation in test samples
  36. Standard Deviation
    A measure of how much the data deviate (vary) from the mean