Drug Classifications

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Drug Classifications
2013-04-26 11:27:40
Drug Classifications

Drug Classifications
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  1. alkylates
    treat certain types of malignancies

    Alkylates break DNA strands in the cancerous cell by substituting an alkyl group for a hydrogen molecule in DNA
  2. analgesics
    relieve minor to sever pain

    analgesics include nonprescription drugs, such as aspirin & other NSAID agents, and those classified as controlled substances and available only by prescription
  3. angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
    lower BP by inhibiting conversion of angiotensin I (inactive enzyme) to angiotensin II (a vasoconstrictor)
  4. androgens
    increase testosterone levels

    hyposecretion of testosterone may be due to surgical removal of testes or decreased levels of LH from the anterior pituitary gland
  5. anesthetics
    produce partial or complete loss of sensation, with or without loss of consciousness

    general anesthetics act upon the brain to produce complete loss of feeling with loss of consciousness. Local anesthetics act upon nerves or nerve tracts to affect a local area only
  6. antacids
    neutralize excess acid in the stomach and help relieve gastritis and ulcer painantacids also are used to relieve indigestion & refulx esophagitis (heartburn)
  7. relieve angina pectoris by vasodilation
  8. reduce anxiety and neurosis
    antianxiety drugs are classified as minor tranquilizers and anxiolytics
  9. treat cardiac arrhythmias by stabilizing the elctrical conduction of the heart
  10. inhibits growth of or destroy microorganisms
    antibiotics are used extensively in treatment of infection diseases
  11. prevent or delay blood coagulation
    anticoagulants prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and postoperative clot formation & decrease the risk of stroke
  12. prevent or reduce the severity of epileptic or other convulsive seizures;
    anticonvulsants; also called (antiepileptics)
  13. regulate mood and reduce symptoms of depression by affecting the amount of neurotransmitters in the brain
  14. stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin & decrease peripheral resistance to insulin
    antidiabetics are taken orally to treat type 2 diabetes
  15. control loose stools and relieve diarrhea by absorbing excess water in the bowel or slowing peristalsis in the intestinal tract
  16. reduce the production of urine
  17. prevent or suppress vomiting
    antiemetics antiemetics are also used in the treatment of vertigo, motion sickness, and nausea
  18. alter the cell wall of fungi or disrupt enzyme activity, resulting in cellular death
  19. counteract the effects of a histamine
    antihistamines inhibit allergic reaction of inflammation, redness, and itching, especially hay fever and other allergic disorders of the nasal passages
  20. lower lipid levels in the bloodstream
    antihyperlipidemics reduce the risk of heart attack by lowering lipid levels
  21. lower BP
  22. treat erectile dysfunction (impotence) by increasing blood flow to the penis, resulting in an erection
  23. eliminate or inhibit bacterial or fungal infections
    anti-infectivies, antibacterials, antifungals can be administered either topically or systemically
  24. Anti-inflammatories
    • relieve the swelling, tenderness, redness, and pain of inflammation
    • -can be classified as steroidal (corticosteroids) or nonsteroidal
  25. corticosteroids (glucocorticoids)
    (classification of anti-inflammatory)
    relieve inflammation and replace hormones for adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease)

    corticosteroids are widely used to suppress the immune system's inflammatory response to tissue damage, controlling allergic reactions, reducing the rejection process in tissue and organ transplantation, and treating some cancers.
  26. nonsteroidals (NSAIDS)
    relieve inflammation associated with arthritis & related disorders
  27. interfere with the use of enzymes required for cell division
    antimetabolites block folic acid, a B vitamin required for synthesis of some amino acids in the DNA of cancerous cells
  28. Destroy or inhibit the growth of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa, depending on the particular drug, generally by interfering with the functions of their cell membrane or their reproductive cycle
  29. control tremors and muscle rigidity associated with Parkinson disease by increasing dopamine levels in the brain
  30. prevent or relieve itching
  31. treat psychosis, paranoia, and schizophrenia by altering chemicals in the brain, including the limbic system (group of brain structures), which controls emotions
  32. topically applied agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of bacteria, preventing infection in cuts, scratches, and surgical incisions
  33. act on the autonomic nervous system to reduce spasms in the bladder or GI tract
  34. treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 & T4 hormone
  35. Used in the treatment of tuberculosis

    several of these drugs are used in combination to produce effective treatment
  36. relieve or suppress coughing by blocking the cough reflex in the medulla of the brain
  37. prevent replication of viruses with host cells
    antivirals are used in treatment of HIV/AIDS
  38. shrink the blood vessels locally, dry up secretions from seeping lesion, and lessen skin sensitivity
  39. treat cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, and hypertension and improve outcomes after myocardial infactions
    beta-adrenergic blockers (also called beta blockers)

    block the effect of epinephrine on beta receptors, slowing the nerve pulses that pass through the heart, thereby causing a decrease in heart rate and contractility.  Some beta-adrenergic blockers are also used to treat glaucoma
  40. inhibit breakdown of bone
    bone resorption inhibitors are used to treat osteoperosis
  41. stimulate bronchial muscles to relax, thereby expanding air passages and resulting in increased air flow to the lungs
  42. selectively block movement of calcium (required for blood vessel contraction) into myocardial cells and arterial walls, causing heart rate and BP to decrease
    calcium channel blockers

    used to treat angina pectoris, arrythmias, heart failure, and hypertension
  43. treat certain diseases with gold compounds
    chrysotherapy (aka gold therapy)

    used to treat rheumatoid arthritis
  44. prevent conception or ovulation
  45. birth control patch (contraceptive)
    delivers 2 synthetic hormones, progestin & estrogen, through a transdermal patch, impeding pregnancy by preventing the ovaries from releasing eggs (ovulation) and thickening the cervical mucus

    the patch is applied directly to the skin (buttocks, abs, upper torso, upper outer arm) 95% effective
  46. injectable contraceptive
    delivers a synthetic drug similar to progesterone through an injection administered 4 times per year that prevents the ovaries from releasing eggs (ovulation) and thickens the cervical mucus

    when used as directed an injectable contraceptive may prevent pregnancy more than 99% of the time
  47. Oral contraceptive - OC
    (birth control pills)
    inhibits ovulation and pituitary secretion of LH, causing changes in cervical mucus that render it unfavorable to penetration by sperm and altering the nature of the endometrium.

    OCs contain estrogen & progestin in various levels of strength.  nearly 100% effective
  48. paralyze the ciliary muscles, resulting in pupil dilation

    used to dilate the pupils to facilitate certain eye examinations and surgical procedures
  49. disrupt nucleic acid and protein synthesis, causing immunosuppression and cancer cell death
    cytotoxics are used to treat cancer and autoimmune diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and systemic vasculitis.  The are also used to prevent rejection in transplant recipients
  50. decrease congestion of mucous membranes of sinuses and nose
    decongestants are used for temporary relief of nasal congestion associated with the common cold, hay fever, other upper respiratory allergies, and sinusitis
  51. act on the kidney to promote the excretion of sodium & water
    diuretics are used to treat edema and hypertension
  52. used to induce vomiting, especially in cases of poisoning
  53. used in estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) during menopause to correct estrogen deficiency and as chemotherapy for some types of cancer, including tumors of the prostate
    estrogen hormone
  54. liquefy respiratory secretions so that they are more easily dislodged during coughing episodes
  55. trigger the body to produce plasmin, an enzyme that dissolves clots
    fibrinolytics are used to treat acute pulmonary embolism and, occasionally, deep vein thrombosis
  56. raise sperm count in infertility cases
  57. increase skeletal growth in children & growth hormone deficiencies in adults
    growth hormone replacements
  58. block histamine-2 (H2) receptors in the stomach to decrease the release of hydrochloric acid
    H2 blockers are used to treat peptic ulcers
  59. prevent or control bleeding
    hemostatics are used to treat blood disorders and certain bleeding problems associated with surgery
  60. depress the CNS to induce or maintain sleep
  61. increase the efficiency of contractions of the heart muscle
    inotropics, cardiotonics are used to treat cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac failure
  62. synthetic form of insulin hormone for diabetes administered by injection to lower the glucose level in the blood
  63. destroy and soften the outer layer of skin so that it is sloughed off or shed
    strong keratolytics are effective for removing warts and corns.  Milder preparations are used to promote the shedding of scales and crusts in eczema, psoriasis, and seborrheic dermatitis. Weak keratolytics irritate inflamed skin, acting as tonics that speed up the healing process
  64. induce bowel movements or loosen stool
    laxatives (cathartic, purgative)

    when used in smaller doses, laxatives relieve constipation.  When used in larger doses, they evacuate the entire GI tract; for example, as preparation for surgery or intestinal examinations
  65. constrict the pupil of the eye
    miotics are used the the treatment of glaucoma
  66. liquefy sputum or reduce its viscosity so that it can be coughed up more easily
  67. dilate the pupil and paralyze the muscles of accommodation of the iris

    used to prepare the eye for internal examination and to treat inflammatory conditions of the iris
  68. treat angina pectoris by dilating arteries and increasing blood flow to the myocardium
  69. relieve pain

    contain opium or its derivative.  They are commonly prescribed on a short-term basis due to their strong addictive property
  70. destroy systemic parasites, such as pinworm or tapeworm, in oral form, or insect parasites, such as mites and lice, in topical form
  71. increase the potassium level of the blood
    potassium supplements

    can be administered orally or IV when dangerously low levels occur.  It is used as a replacement for potassium loss due to diuretics
  72. used to induce labor, terminate pregnancy, or treat erectile dysfunction, patent ductus arteriosis, or pulmonary hypertension
  73. function by covering, cooling, drying, or soothing inflamed skin
    protectives do not penetrate or soften the skin by form a long-lasting film that protects the skin from air, water, and clothing during the natural healing process
  74. block the final stage of hydrochloric acid production in the stomach
    proton pump inhibitors are used to treat peptic ulcers & GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease)
  75. alter chemical balance in the brain, causing changes in perception, mood, and behavior

    commonly employed in the management of the psychiatric disorders
  76. reduce tension, causing relaxation of muscles or bowel
  77. relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation
  78. exert a calming or tranquilizing effect
  79. relieve muscle spasms and stiffness
    skeletal muscle relaxants
  80. chemically destroy sperm

    consist of jellies, creams, and foams and do not require a prescription.  They are commonly used within the woman's vagina for contraceptive purposes
  81. lower cholesterol in the blood and reduce its production in the liver by blocking the enzyme that produces it
  82. dissolve blood clots by destroying their fibrin strands

    used to break apart, or lyse, thrombi.
  83. replace or supplement thyroid hormones
    thyroid supplements
  84. block sensation of pain by numbing the skin layers and mucous membranes
    topical anesthetics are applied directly in spays, creams, gargles, suppositories, and other preparations.  They are also used to numb the skin to make the injection of medication more comfortable
  85. calm anxiousness or agitation without decreasing consciousness
  86. increase urinary excretion or uric acid, reducing the concentration of uric acid in the blood

    used to treat gout
  87. induce labor at term, control postpartum hemorrhage, induce therapeutic abortion
    uterine stimulants (aka oxytocic agents)

    oxytocin is pharmaceutically prepared chemical that is similar to the pituitary hormone. Uterine stimulants are also used to treat infertility in females
  88. narrow or constrict the diameter of blood vessels

    used to decrease blood flow and increase BP
  89. dilate the diameter of blood vessels
    vasodilators are used in treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension
  90. treats pernicious anemia
    vitamin B12

    delivered by nasal spray or intramuscular (IM) injection