Endocrine System

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Endocrine System
2013-04-23 15:39:18

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  1. What type of gland discharges their secretions into ducts to be taken to a specific location
  2. what type of gland discharges their secretions directly into the bloodstream
  3. what are cells that have specifically shaped receptros on or within their membranes that allow hormones to bind
  4. what does the endocrine gland secrete
    • hormones
    • ligands
  5. what 3 things control the hormonal secretions
    • blood level of chemicals
    • hormones
    • nervous system
  6. what type of hormones travel freely in blood plasma to target tissues
    protein hormones
  7. what type of hormones are transported in blood plasma attached to plasma proteins and must detach before entering the target cell
    lipid/steroid hormones
  8. what type of feedback is a rare process taht amplifies physiological changes until function is completed
  9. what are labor, sneezing, and blood clotting examples of
    positive feedback
  10. what type of feedback is a common process in which a physiologic directions changes to maintain balance
    negative feedback
  11. what are regulatory molecules derived from fatty acids that only affect neighboring or near by cells
  12. what are the most common type of eicosanoids
  13. what is another name for eicosanoids
    tissue hormones
  14. what is the pathway of sperm
    • seminiferous tubules
    • epididymis
    • vas/ductus deferens
    • ejaculatory duct
    • urethra
  15. what are paired gonads of the male reproductive system called
  16. what organ protects the testes as well as regulating their temperature
  17. what is the membrane surrounding each testis called
    tunica albuginea
  18. what forms the septa of the testis
    tunica albuginea
  19. what are testis called when they are divided
  20. how many compartments do the lobules have
  21. what do the lobules contain
    seminiferous tubules
  22. what is the site of spermatogenesis
    seminiferous tubules
  23. what male reproductive organ makes testosterone
    intersitial cells/cells of leydig
  24. what male reproductive organ is located in spaces just outside the highly coiled seminiferous tubules
    intersitial cells/ cells of leydig
  25. what male reproductive organ consists of the artery, vein, and nerve that serve the testis as as well as the ductus deferens
    spermatic cord
  26. What is the process of producing spermatozoza/sperm
  27. what are the different cells in order, in which spermatogenesis divides into
    • spermatogonia
    • spermatocytes
    • spermatids
    • spermatazoa
  28. what type of sperm cells are the stems cells that undergo mitotic cell division throught the adult life and produce daughter cells
  29. what type of sperm cells prepare to begin meiosis
  30. what type of sperm cells are the immature gametes that are small and relatively unspecialized
  31. what type of sperm cells are physically mature and are the mst highly specialized cells in the body
  32. what is the single, very tightly coiled tube that lies on the posterior region of the testes called
  33. what part of the male reproductive system assists in sperm functional maturation
  34. what part of the male reproductive system assist in sperm storage
  35. how long does it take for sperm to pass through the epididymis
    14 or more days
  36. what part of the male reproductive system aids in the break down and abosrbs damaged spermatozoa
  37. what organ of the male reproductive system transports sperm from the epididymis tail through the inguinal canal, over the ureters, and ends at the ejaculatory duct
    ducuts deferens
  38. how long can the ducuts deferens store sperm
    several months
  39. what organ of the male reproductive system connects the fused ducuts deferens to the urethra
    ejaculatory duct
  40. what organ of the male reproductive system takes secretions from the seminal vescicles as it passes through the prostate gland
    ejaculatory duct
  41. how much semen do the seminal vesicles produce
  42. what 3 things does seminal fluid contain
    • fructose
    • prostaglandins
    • fibrinogen
  43. what purpose does fructose serve in seminal fluid
    gives the sperm energy to activate flagella
  44. what purpose does prostaglandins serve in the seminal fluid
    stimulate peristalsis in reproductive tract
  45. what purpose does fibrinogen serve in the semianl fluid
    forms a temporary clot within the vagina
  46. why does seminal fluid help neutrilize acids in the prostatic secretions within the vagina
  47. what organ of the male reproductive system encirlces the proximal urethra as it leaves the urinary bladder
    prostate gland
  48. what helps prevent urinary trac infection in males and active and maintains sperm motility
    prostatic fluid secretion
  49. what organ of the male reproductive system extends from the urinary bladder to the glans
  50. what are 3 regions is the urethra divided into
    • prostatic
    • membranous
    • penile
  51. what region of the urethra runs through the prostate gland
  52. what region of the urethra runs through the urogenital diaphragm
  53. what region of the urethra runs distal to the urogential diaphragm
  54. what organ of the male reproductive system is also called cowper's gland
    bulbourethral gland
  55. what organ of the male reproductive system is located inferior ot the prostate gland
    bulbourethral gland
  56. what organ of the male reproductive system secretes a thick, clear fluid to the penile portion of the urethra to neutralize acidic traces of urine and to lubricate the urethra
    bulbourethral gland
  57. what is the removal of the prepuce done after birth on males
  58. what is the typical amout of ejcaulation
    2-5ml of semen
  59. what two things does semen contain
    • spermatozoa
    • seminal fluid
  60. how many sperm of in 1ml of semen
    20-100 million
  61. what much spermatozoa makes up semen
  62. what organs release secretions to make up the seminal fluid
    • seminal vesicles-60
    • prostate-30
    • ducuts deferens and epididymis-5
    • bulbourethral glands-less than 5
  63. what part of the female reproductive system encloses the ovaries, uterine tubes, and uterus
    broad ligament
  64. what parts of the female reproductive system support and stabilize the position of the uterus, ovaries, and uterine tubes
    broad and associated ligaments
  65. what do the broad and associated ligaments prevent
    • side to side movements
    • superior inferior movements
    • rotation/twisting
  66. what is the pathway of an egg
    • ovary
    • fallopian/uterine/oviduct tube
    • uterus
    • vagina
  67. where does oocyte growth and meiosis 1 occur
    ovarian follicles
  68. where are ovarian follicles located
    cortex of ovaries
  69. what are primary oocytes int he ovarian cortex called
    egg nests
  70. what are the primary ooctye in its egg nest surrounded by simple squamous layer of follicular cells called
     primordial follicles
  71. what organ of the female reproductive system serves as a pathway for the egg to the uterus
    uterine tubes
  72. what are the finger like extension that capture the ovum over a space between the ovary and tube alled
  73. what propel the egg/pre-embryo towards the uterus
    ciliated epthelium and peristaltic contractions
  74. how long does it take for the egg to get to the uterus
    3-4 days
  75. when and where must fertilization take place
    • 12-24 hrs after ovulation
    • ampulla
  76. what do the uterine tubes provide for the sperm and developing pre embryo
    • lipids
    • glycogen
  77. what organ of the female reproductive systme provides mechanial protections, nutrional support, and waste removal
  78. what 3 layers does the uterine wall consist of
    • perimetrium
    • myometrium
    • endometrium
  79. which layer of the uterine wall is a visceral peritoneal membrane
  80. what layer of the uterine wall is the thickest layer and is composed of longitudinal, circular, and oblique layers
  81. what layer of the uterine wall is the inner linking make up 10 percent of its mass
  82. what lyaer of the uterine wall has glands and vascualr tissue to support physiologic demands of a growing fetus
  83. what layer of the uterine was is altered in thickness during uterine cycle
  84. what are the 3 phases of the uterine cycle
    • menses
    • proliferative phase
    • secretory phase
  85. what is the region enclosing the female external genitalia
  86. what does the vagina open into
  87. what is the central spaced bordered by the labia minora called
  88. what opens into the vestuble
  89. what is anterior to the urethral openiong and projects into the vestibule