eco 3

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  1. Explain two examples of evolution in response to environmental change; one must be antibiotic resistance inbacteria
    • evolution occurred in:gene tt gives resist. to antibiotic transferred to bacterium by plasmid (transformation) some bact resist, some not
    • doctors/vets use antibiotics to contro bact
    • natural selection favours bact resis, kills non
    • antibiotic resis bact prod and spread replace non resis, = most bact resist
    • docs/vets change to another, eventually resist develops as well, resist bact evolved
    • e.g
    • antibiotics used to control disease caused by bact in humans
    • increasing probl with disease causing bact being resistant to antibiotics
    • percentage cases gonorrhea caused by antibiotic resistant strains Neisseria gonorrhoeae, trend many other diseases = same
    • genes tt give resist to antibiotic can be found in micro organisms tt naturally make tt antibiotic
  2. evolution melanism ladybugs
    • two spot ladybug Adalia bipunctata
    • small beetle usua red wing cases w. two black spots
    • red color warns preds = tastes bad
    • melanic forms also exist w. black wing cases, melanic form absorbs heat more effic than red
    • has selective advantage when sunlight lvls low and diffi for ladybugs warm up
    • natural selection evol in resp to pollution
    • melanic form common in indus area, declined in 1960 correlates with decreases in smoke in air
    • air darkened by smoke = warm up quicker, if smoke gone, adv lost and warming coloration more import
    • as smoke concentration rises, melanic form rises, over time smoke decre so melanic form decre
  3. Outline the binomial system of nomenclature
    • int' nomenclature syst to identify species,species has two names.
    • used together to give a precise reference to this species.
    • Genus is given first and is always written with an upper case letter. e.g. Homo
    • Species epithet follows the genus and is written in lower case e.g. sapiens
    • italics electronic, underlined handwritten
  4. List seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa—kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species—using an example from two different kingdoms for each level
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  5. species***
    group organisms with similar characteristics, which can interbreed prod fertile offspring
  6. Distinguish between the following phyla of plants, using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta and angiospermophyta (4)
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  7. Bryophyta
    • (mosses, liverworts and hornworts)
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    • stems radial symmetry (mosses)
    • stems bilateral symmetry (liverworts), no lignin
    • no true leaves or roots, rhizoids 
    • no cuticle.
    • reproductive structure are called sporangium which are on long stalks with capsules on end.
    • spore is released from the sporangium to develop into another plant.
  8. Filicinophyta
    • (ferns)
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    • leaves usu curled up in bud, pairs leaflets
    • roots non woody stems
    • divided leaves
    • height up to 20m
    • reproduction: sporangia (sori) contain reproductive spores
  9. Coniferophytes
    • (conifers and pines)
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    • trees (100m), shrubs,
    • woody (lignin) stems,
    • waxy narrow needle like leaves, cuticle
    • .vascular system tracheids)
    • reproduction: seeds, develop fr ovules on surface scales o female CONES, male cones produce pollen
  10. Angiospermophyta
    • (flowering plants and grasses) deciduous trees
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    • roots
    • stems are into shrubs and trees are woody
    • leaves.
    • vascular bundles (xylem/ phloem )
    • waxy cuticle,
    • annual or perennial
    • reproduction:ovules in an enclosed carpel structure.
    • fruit!
    • pollen grains produced from anthers
    • variety of pollen transfers vectors
  11. Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca and arthropoda.
    • invertebrates
  12. Porifera (sponges)
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    • No body layers 
    • Body plan is built around water canals that circulate nutrient through the sponge for ingestion by specialised cells.
    • no clear symm
    • attached to surface
    • There is no mouth or anus
  13. Cnidaria
    • (Jelly fish, Sea anemones, Corals)
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    • These have 2 layers in the body plan.
    • is a radial symmetry.
    • .Single entrance that serves the the cavity 
    • tentacles stinging cells with toxins 
    • mouth but no anus
  14. Platyhelminthes
    • (flatworms, tapeworms, planaria)
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    • 3 layers in the body plan
    • .One entrance to 'gut' which can have many folds to increase surface area (mouth no anus)
    • .largely parasitic includes flukes
    • bilat symm
    • flat bodies
    • unseg
  15. Annelida
    • (segment worms, earthworms, leeches)
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    • 3 layers to the body plan / bilateral symmetry
    • body divided into ringed segments with some specialisation of segments
    • Mouth connected via gut to a separate anus.
    • Skin surface used for gas exchange.
    • often bristles
  16. Mollusca
    • (Snails, slugs and octopus, clams, squids)
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    • Bilateral symmetry with significant modification.
    • -Foot, a muscular structure used for movement and burrowing.
    • -Central visceral mass containing all the organ structures (separate mouth and anus)
    • -Mantle a folded membrane structure that can surround other tissues and create a cavity containing a gill.
    • -shell usually present
    • -mouth and anus
    • -segmentation, but not visible
  17. Arthropoda
    • (Insects, Crustaceans, Spiders, Scorpions, Millipedes, crabs)
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    • 3 layer body plant with bilateral symmetry.
    • Hard exoskeleton
    • Jointed body segments.
    • Jointed appendages.
    • Separate mouth and anus.
  18. dichotomous key
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    • practice
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Card Set:
eco 3
2013-04-24 02:15:32
eco bio

eco 3
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