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Distinguish between the
experimental criterion and the applied criterion
- Experimental criterion
- Whether the change in bx or domain of interest is reliable
- Applied criterion
- Whetherthe change in bx is important
What is the purpose of the
experimental criterion and how is the criterion met?
To show a comparison ofperformance during intervention and if intervention had not beenimplemented
What is the underlying
rationale of visual inspection?
To encourage theinvestigators to focus on intervention with potents effects that can bedetected by merely inspecting the data
What are the 4
characteristics of data that visual inspection depends on?
Changes in mean acrossphasesChanges in level – shiftof performance from end of one phase to the beginning of another
Changes in trend – showsystematic increases or decreases over time
Latency of the change –time it takes to show changes in bx from phase to phase
Describe the major concerns with visual inspection
Lack of concrete decisionmaking rules – no absolute rule to state whether an intervention wassuccessful enough or not
Multiple influences inreaching a decision – range of factors and how they come together torender a decision is not clear
Search for only markedeffects – weak but reliable effects are overlooked
The goal of producing
replicable findings raises what two points about visual inspection?
- The goal of producing
- replicable findings raises what two points about visual inspection?
- Need Data analytic tools
- that lead to consistency in reaching conclusions
- Findings should be obtained
- under different conditions
Describe the two methods
of social validation and their essential features.
Social comparison –participant is compared to typical peer
- Subjective evaluation –persons in the community and close to the participant evaluate
- whether or not there has been significant change
Why has self-evaluation asa means for social validation used less frequently?
Participants are normallydisabled
They reflect overall satisfaction with the intervention and not bx change.
What are the three indices
that have been used to evaluate whether a change is clinically
treatment assessment scores should depart from pre treatment scores
No longer meeting
- Falling within a Normative range
- How well to participants after treatment fall within the normative range of performance
- Departure from dysfunctional behavior
- After treatment assessment scores should depart from pre treatment scores
No longer meeting diagnostic criteria
What are the critical issues pertaining to social validity and clinical significance
- Social comparison and return to normative levels
- At the end of intervention participants should fall within the normative range
Who should they be compared to
Who determines what a normal range is
Subjectivity of change evaluation by caregivers
Use with caution
between Type I, and Type II errors.
Type1 (false alarm) detecting an effect that is not thereType2 (miss) not detecting and effect that is there
been said that visual analysis of data is less sensitive than statistical
analysis of the same data. Do you think this is a good or a bad thing?
It is a good thing. In appliedstudies we are looking for interventions that have huge impacts, so notdetecting small affects is adventitious to our goal
does serial dependency refer to?
Mistakes in one phase carryover to thenext?
Because visual analysis of data is less sensitive than statistical analysis, it
has been suggested that behavior analysts make more Type II errors
(misses) than Type I errors (false alarms). Do results of this study
support this belief? Explain.
- type 1 errors were more common and type 2 were relatively low.
between internal and external validity and explain how poor treatment
integrity can negatively impact both types of validity.
Internal– IV caused changes in DV i. Poorintegrity precludes attributing changes in the DV to the manipulation of the IVif there were no checks on the implementation of the IV ii. Therecan be no distinction between an ineffective intervention and ineffectiveexecution of that interventionExternal– Generalization can occur i. Replication is impossible if treatmentintegrity is not assessed which does not allow for generalization of thefindings
What recommendations are given for improving confidence in research findings?
Provideclear operational definitionsAccuracycriterion should be used to assess each component of the IVTreatmentintegrity should be measured by scoring the occurrence an nonoccurrenceof each treatment componentConsiderthe number of observations and reactivity (observer and participant) whenassessing integrity Frequent trainings of observers duringthe study
Describe the split-middle (SM) method
.A regression line from baseline that is superimposed over the treatmentphase. Using a binomial equation to generate the number of datapointsthat needed to be above the line to be significant
the two refinements of the split-middle (SM) method evaluated in this study.
mean line was drawn and a specified number of data points needed to meet the
requirements for both lines
as DC but the height of the lines were raised by .25 standard deviations
- the two refinements of the split-middle (SM) method evaluated in this
- i. A
- mean line was drawn and a specified number of data points needed to meet the
- requirements for both lines
- as DC but the height of the lines were raised by .25 standard deviations
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