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Handling of Charred Documents
- Found in fireplace: slide piece of heavy paper under charred paper and carefully place on a cushion of tissue in a rigid box.
- Ashtray: place ashtray in a moveable container so that it does not slide.
Qualities of Exemplars
3 Ways to Preserve Body Fluid Evidence
- Air dry
- Refrigerate up to a week
- Delivery to lab right away
Basic Assumption of Question Documents
While we are all taught to write, we all have a unique and individual way of doing so.
How to Determine Direction of Blood Spatter
Lead edge of disruption
Why should you recover the tool as soon as possible?
So that it cannot be used again
Factor considered in making handwriting comparisons
- Height ratios
- Size proportions
- Starting and ending strokes
Indented Writing Submissions
- Pre-label container
- Label not to bend or fold
- Place inside file folder
- Packaged securely to prevent rubbing
Any use of a drug to an extent that causes harm to individual or society
Other Characteristics of a Fired Bullet
- Potential Firearm
- Bullet in Victim
- Bullet Fragment
- Blood on Bullet
Evidence Handling: Firearm in Water
Package gun in same water it is found in
From both parents
Blood Spatter: Passive
Firearms: Lab Capabilities
- If cartridge has been worked through mechanism, extractor and ejector marks may be present.
- Cartridge case may have firing pin, breech face marks, chamber marks, extractor marks and ejector marks.
- Bullet characteristics.
Bullets: Class Characteristics
- Number of lands and grooves
- Direction of twist
Determination from a Toolmark
- Type of tool
- Size of tool
- Unusual features
- Action employed
- Is tool mark of value for identification/
Handling of Intact Documents
- Pre-label evidence container to avoid having to mark packaging materials with document enclosed.
- Label not to bend, fold or stamp container.
- Soft tipped tweezers or gloves.
How to package a shirt for evidence
- Slide cardboard between front and back
- One cardboard on top, one on bottom
- Fold sleeves over cardboard
- One more piece of board on top
- Proximity Testing
- Fracture Matching
- Speedometer Examinations
- Number Restoration
Blood Spatter: Photography
- Overview photos
- Midrange photos to orient yourself to spatter
- Distribution photo with two large scales
- Close up photos of each stain with metric millimeter scale
Bring object with stain into lab, especially if two or more examinations are requested.
Additional Toolmark Considerations
- Types of crimes
- Don't try to march up tool to impression, may cause damage
- Tool not allowed in court
Schedule I Drugs
- High potential for abuse
- No accepted medical use in U.S.
Left behind after projectile goes down range
- Study the document
- Don't show suspect the document
- Don't indicate how to spell or puncuate
- If suspect appears to be distinguished in their writing, you can speed up or slow down your diction.
Blood Spatter: Projected
Cast off, expirated
Bullets: Individual Characteristics
Microscopic stria that is imparted on the bullet as it passes through the barrel of a gun
- Auto-loading pistol
- Crack cocaine vs. Powder
- LSD = Blotter acid
An object that contains handwriting or typewritten markings whose source or authenticity is in doubt
Pharmacological Drug Classification
Handling Torn Documents
- Do not attempt to piece document together
- Place all piece in envelope and submit
- Seminal Fluid
- Saliva (assumed)
- Vaginal Fluid (assumed)
Blood Spatter: Wipe
Blood onto non-bloody surface
Complete ammunition component
- Shotgun - smooth bore
- Rifle - barrel with lands and grooves
Questioned Documents: Other Considerations
- Ink Identification
- Alteration or obliteration of photography can be seen through UV light or infared
Limitations of Questioned Documents Lab
- Cannot determine age, sex or race from handwriting.
- No conclusion may result when
- 1. Poor exemplars are obtained
- 2. Poor questioned document
- 3. Lack of standards that occur at the same time of document
Schedule II Drugs
- High potential for abuse
- Has a currently accepted medical use in U.S. with severe restrictions
How to determine point of origin of blood spatter
Clandestine Lab Dangers
Could have explosive materials that may cause fires or toxic fumes
Blood Spatter: Swipe
Hand with movement onto bloody surface
Blood Spatter: Transfer
Hand with no movement onto bloody surface
Comparison of Questioned Documents
Direct means of identifying an individual and many variables must be taken into account in handwriting comparison
How does blood spatter help investigation?
- Sample Site
How to conclude two writings were written by one person
There must be a combination of significant individual writing characteristics and an absence of unexplainable differences
Impression, striated mark or combination of both
Conclusions of comparison between tool and toolmark
- The tool made the mark
- The tool did not make the mark
- There are not sufficient corresponding individual characteristics between the tool and toolmark to make a determination
- Visual description
- Field Test
- PDR (Physician Desk Reference)
- DON'T taste - lolol no really this is on the test
Evidence Handling: Firearm
- Safely unload firearm after documenting the cylinder in revolvers or chamber/magazines in pistols.
- Package in rigid container
- Label container as loaded or unloaded
- When being submitted for DNA: Must be sealed with tape