bio test 3

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marco5
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215484
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bio test 3
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2013-04-28 19:32:35
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bio 003
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bio 003 test 3
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  1. Chromatin
    is long strands of DNA wrapped around proteins.
  2. chromosome
    • is a packaged and condensed strand of
    • Chromatin  (DNA and Protein)
  3. how long does the cell cycle last
    what are the stages/ how long do they last
    • The Cell Cycle lasts 24
    • hrs.  There are three phases

    • 1.Interphase:
    • includes G1, S (duplication of DNA 6of 23.5hrs) and G2 , lasts 23.5 hr

    • 2.    
    • Mitosis or identity division (nuclear division). 
    • Begins with one diploid cell and produces of two identical diploid daughter cells; sister chromatids condense, align themselves,and separate in 4 stages that lasts 30 minutes includes

    • ·      
    • Prophase: (plain to see)

    • ·      
    • Metaphase (middle)

    • ·      
    • anaphase (apart)

    • ·      
    • telophase (two nuclei)

    • 3.    
    • Cytokinesis (div of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane to form two distinct cells)

    • Cytokinesis
    • usually starts in late anaphase or early telophase
  4. Transcription:
    the information on DNA is copied onto a length of mRNA (DNAà mRNA)
  5. Translation:
    the polypeptide chain is formed (RNAà protein)
  6. Protein synthesis requires?
    transcription and translation
  7. Transcription occurs where?
    in thenucleus
  8. Translation occurs where?
    cytoplasm
  9. Codon: 
    • the triplicate code found
    • on mRNA that codes for each of the 20 amino acids, for start
    • (methionine) and stop
  10. Transcription occurs where?
    • Transcription occurs in the
    • nucleus
  11. Translation occurs in the
    cytoplasm on the ribosomes (rER) 
  12. During translation:
    • a. mRNA binds to the small ribosome and the first tRNA binds to the start
    • (AUG) codon on the mRNA

    b. the large subunit now attaches to the small subunit

    • c. the polypeptide chain elongates. The
    • second tRNA molecule binds to an mRNA codon at the A site.

    This tRNA brings another amino acid . The ribosome moves down the mRNA chain, allowing the tRNA  to read each codon in the mRNA. The tRNA brings an amino acid for each codon it reads.
  13. Genetic Code
    • Genetic Code is the set of rules by which
    • information encoded in genetic material (DNA or RNA sequences) is translated into proteins (amino acid sequences) by living cells
  14. DNA: A IS TO _ C IS TO _
    RNA: A IS TO _ G IS TO_ T IS TO _
    • DNA
    • A-T
    • C-G
    • RNA
    • A-U
    • G-C
    • C-G
    • T-A
  15. CELL CYCLE
    • 1.Interphase:
    • includes G1, S (duplication of DNA 6of 23.5hrs) and G2 , lasts 23.5 hr

    • 2. Mitosis or identity division (nuclear division). Begins with one diploid cell and produces of two identical diploid
    • daughter cells; sister chromatids condense, align themselves,and separate in 4 stages that lasts 30 minutes includes

    · Prophase: (plain to see)

    · Metaphase (middle)

    · anaphase (apart)

    ·telophase (two nuclei)

    3.Cytokinesis (div of the cytoplasm and plasma membrane to form two distinct cells)

    • Cytokinesis
    • usually starts in late anaphase or early telophase
  16. MEIOSIS :
    • SEX CELL DIVISION REDUCES THE
    • CHROMOSOME NUMBER BY HALF
  17. Name SOME dominant disorder
    Huntington and dwarfism

     
  18. Recisive disorders
    Albisism, taisacks, sistick fibrosis

     
  19. Normal for Huntington and has albinism
    hhaa
  20. codominant
    sickle cell anemia and blood type
  21. gene therapy- 
    inserting correct version of anallele
  22. 3 types of rna
    • mRNA
    • tRNA
    • rRNA
  23. which type of RNA determines the amino acid sequence? 
    mRNA
  24. what rna is going to recognize the code? 
    tRNA,with the anti codon
  25. sex link disorders
    Color blindness

    Hemophilia
  26. 2 types of incomplete dominance?
    Pink flowers and hypercholesterolemia 
  27. Codominant
    • Sickle cell
    • Blood type
  28. Polyallelic
    Blood type
  29. Polygenic-
     skin color hair color 
  30. Dominant traits:
    • Huntingtons
    • Dwarfism
  31. Recesive-
    Color eyes

    Cystic fibrosis

    Tay sacks

    Albinism
  32. How to make recombinant dna
    • Cut the source of DNA with restriction
    • enzyme

    • Cut the plasmid or vector with the
    • same enzyme

    • Mix the 2 together and glue them
    • together with LIGASE

    • Transform that bacterial cell ( added
    • that bacteria)

    Replicate

     
  33. are alternative forms of
    the same gene
    Alleles 
  34. Phenotype
    • Phenotype is the
    • physical characteristic or “trait. 
  35. CENTRAL DOGMA
    • Gene (DNA) first make mRNA the mRNA makes protein. 
    • One gene coding sequence produces one protein subunit.

    This is the essence of the CENTRAL DOGMA
  36. Mendel's 2 principals
    • 1.  The Principle of Segregation: states that
    • pairs of genes segregate (separate) during gamete formation and fusion of
    • gametes at fertilization pairs genes once again. Demonstrated in a monohybrid
    • cross.

    • 2. 
    • The Principle of Independent Assortment: Each pair of alleles segregates
    • independently during gamete formation. Demonstrated during the dihybrid cross.
    • Independent (Random) Assortment of Alleles can be demonstrated in Meiosis
  37. Diploid
    Diploid cells contain two complete sets (2n) of chromosomes.
  38. Haploid
    Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes (n) as diploid - i.e. a haploid cell contains only one complete set of chromosomes.
  39. difference between DNA and RNA
    • Deoxyribose sugar- for DNA
    • Ribose sugar- for RNA
    • DNA- double stranded
    • RNA- single strand
  40. Zygote
    Zygote is the diploid cell that results from the fertilizationbetween an egg and a sperm.
  41. gamete
    Is a cell that fuses with another cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that reproduce sexually. Females produced a large gamete called an egg cell while males produce a tadpole-like gamete called a sperm cell.
  42. allele
     specific variation of a gene.
  43. Monohybrid Cross:  
    Also known as a Single-Factor Cross.  Only one trait is used in the genetic cross.  E.g. T=Tall, t=short.  Example:  Tt x Tt
  44. Dihybrid Cross: 
    Dihybrid Cross:  Also known as a Two-factor Cross.  Two trait are used in the genetic cross.  E.g.  T=Tall, t=short  &  B=Black fur, b=white fur.  Example  TtBb x TTBB
  45. Incomplete Dominance
    Incomplete Dominance:  One allele is not completely dominant over the other.  There is a blending with the heterozygous offspring.  E.g. RR=Red, Rr=Pink, and rr=white
  46. cross between 2 heterozygous produces ?
    9 3 3 1 ratio

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