Holocaust Theologians, Judaism
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Holocaust Theologians, Judaism
holocaust theology theologians judaism a2
All the theologians and their quotes and main ideas. And some links.
First of all, how do you spell the biggest concentration camp in the Holocaust?
List all the theologians you need to know and describe in a couple of words each's argument. (10)
: angry, remember, human solidarity, education
: death of God of history
: human tremendum, divine filament
: hester panim, hidden face of God
: tikkum olam (repair together), 614th mitzvot
: hope in life after death.
Chief Rabbi, Jonathan Sacks
: just another calamity, remember without hate, will never understand H.
: punishment from God for assimilation and Zionism
: punishment from God, for straying away from Torah.
Outline briefly how Elie Wiesel's response to the Holocaust transformed over time.
At first, he was angry with God and protests to God.
Dan Cohn-Sherbok also says he was confused.
However, Cohn-Sherbok fails to mention Wiesel's more mature response, which is...
- humans must transform divine injustice, we have the power to change things on Earth.
give humans this power by education.
Give 2 quotes to show Elie Wiesel's anger and confusion - his initial response.
"I will never forget the flames that consumed my faith forever". [From 'Night']
"If I told you I believe in God, I will be lying. If I told you I don't believe in God, I will be lying."
Give the Wiesel quote about remembering.
To Wiesel, remembering is to "wrench the victims from oblivion".
Give 2 quotes on Wiesel's idea of human solidarity.
"Transform divine injustice into human justice and compassion".
"Let us be angry together".
Give 3 facts about Wiesel's response by promoting education.
Chair of the Holocaust Memorial Museum in Washington D.C
President of US Holocaust Memorial Council
Talks and books
What are the main points that Rubenstein makes?
Death of God of history - impossibel to continue to believe in omnipotent and beneficent God of history, unless we see Histler as instruments of God's will.
But he still says Jewish laws are still important for building community and share crisis through traditions.
Reject view Israel/Jews were chosen
Reject view that Israel was tested like Job.
Give Rubenstein's 2 quotes.
"Each of must accept that the universe is unconcerned with our lives, prayers and hopes."
"God is the ultimate nothing"
What are the main points that Cohen makes?
Mindful of Rudolf Otto's characterisation of God's holiness as 'mysterium tremendum'.
Describes Holocaust as
- an unfathomable mystery, almost beyond human understanding.
God is still existent, but it does not interfere with human life/history - in this way, slight problem for classical Jews.
God is the
within human history.
What's Cohen's quote about God not interfering?
"God's role is not to act as a direct agent in human affairs, but as a teacher".
What are Berkovits' main points? Also one quote.
Wrote "Faith after the Holocaust".
- hidden face of God,
to allow human free
God has an incomprehensible plan?
"In His hiddenness He was actually present".
[A traditional view, he does not seem to challenge the traditional view - quite weak and unclear].
What are Maybaum's main points?
Holocaust is the third
creative destructions -
in Jewish history. There are periods of massive destruction but from each comes some type of positive consequence, almost a necessity.
586BCE - oral laws written down
70CE - synagogues created
Holocaust - to eliminate medieval times and modernise. (also brought State of Israel).
[Another traditional view]
What are Emil Fackenheim's main points?
traditional explanations of evil and suffering do not apply to the Holocaust, it is too enormous a tragedy
- humanity's shared responsibility to repair and transform.
614th mitzvot (got a lot of criticism for that), that said not to give Histler a postumous victory
To do this
: 1. Survive, 2. Remember, 3. Do not despair of God, 4. Do not despair of the world
Quote Fackenheim's 614th mitzvot.
"The authentic Jew of today is forbidden to hand Hitler yet another posthumous vitory".
[Importance to survive, remember, and to not despair of God or the world.]
What are Dan-Cohn Sherbok's main points?
Encourages all Jews to consider hope in life after death.
Says how secular Zionists saw return to Israel as a substitute for a Messiah.
What article did Sacks write? What are the main points of Chief Rabbi Jonathan Sacks?
Wrote "holocaust survivors can remember without hating".
Just another calamity.
Similar to Berkovits - we will never understand Holocaust.
- similar to Wiesel.
Do not hate
Mentions Job - like Berkovits.
[Very much pragmatic and forward-looking response - can draw similarities with Wiesel.]
What are the 2 quotes from Jonathan Sacks?
: "Remember, for without memory a civilisation travels blind".
Do not hate
: "hate destroys the hated, but it destroys the hater even more".
What are the main points Wasserman makes?
Holocaust is a punishment for...
Sin of assimilation
Sin of Zionism (ask)
Main points of Maza.
Holocaust punishment for..
Jews turning away from Torah-centred life.
Which theologians do you think are quite-forward looking/pragmatic and in particular, talk about remembering?
Wiesel - must remember, human solidarity
Fackenheim - 614th mitzvot - remember, survive, don't despair. Tikkum Olam - repair together
Jonathan Sacks - remember without hate
Which theologians believe Holocaust to have been a punishment?
Wasserman - for assimilation & Zionism
Maza - from straying away from Torah-centred life
Which theologians to a degree lose hope in God and place more importance on humans?
Rubenstein - death of God of history
Wiesel - angry with God, humans can reverse divine injustice
Which theologians emphasise the mystery of the Holocaust and the incomprehensible nature of God?
Cohen - human tremendum, God as "divine filament"
Berkovits - Hester Panim - hidden face of God
Johnathan Sacks - can never understand
Which theologians believe there was some kind of purpose to the Holocaust?
Maybaum - churbans - creative destruction
Wasserman and Maza - punishment
(Possibly Berkovits - Hester Panim, some incomprehensible plan on behalf of God?)