Medic 14 A&P Chapter 14 notes

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Medic 14 A&P Chapter 14 notes
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2013-04-24 12:41:32
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chapter 14
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  1. Vocab
  2. anamnesis
    memory; anamnestic response
  3. apo-
    away;aotosis
  4. chemo-
    chemestry;chemotaxis
  5. dia-
    through; diapedesis
  6. -gen
    to produce;pyrogen
  7. humor
    liquid;humoral immunity
  8. immunis
    safe;immune
  9. imflammare
    to set on fire;inflammation
  10. lympha
    water; lymph
  11. nodulus
    little know; nodule
  12. pathos
    disease; pathogen
  13. pedesis
    leaping;diapedesis
  14. ptosis
    a falling; diapeesis
  15. pyr
    fire;pyrogen
  16. taxis
    arrangement;taxis
  17. Objective: identify the major components of the lymphatic system and explain their function (pp.512)
  18. Four components of the lymphatic system
    • Vessels
    • fluid
    • lymphocytes
    • lymphoid tissue and organs
  19. Vessels
    • network of lymphatic vessels often called lymphatics
    • begins in peripheral tissues and ends at the connections to the venous system
  20. Fluid
    • lymph 
    • resembles plasma but contains much lower concentration of suspended proteins
  21. Lymphocytes
    specialized cells that preform many of specific functions in defending the body
  22. Lymphoid tissue and organs
    • tissue- collections of loose connective tissue and lymphocytes in structures called lymphoid nodules (tonsils)
    • Lymphoid organs
    • more complex structures and contains large numbers of lymphocytes and ar econnected to lymphatic vessels
    • for example lymph nodes, spleen and thymus
  23. Function of lymphatic system
    • production,maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes
    • The return of fluid and solutes from peripheral tissues to the blood
    • distribution of hormones, nutrientsm and waste products from their tissue of origen to the general population
  24. The production,maintenance, and distribution of lymphocytes
    • Stored in lymphoid organs
    • Vital to body's ability to resist or overcome infection/disease
  25. Lymphocytes respond to the presence of
    • invading pathogens(viruses, bacteria)
    • Abnormal body cells, such as virus infected cells or cancer cells
    • foreign proteins
  26. Lymphocytes attempt to eliminate these threats or render them harmless through
    a combination of physical and chemical actions
  27. Lymphocytes respond to specific threats, this is known as
    specific defense
  28. Immune response is
    specific defense of the body
  29. Immunity
    is the bodys ability to resist infection and disease through the activation of specific defenses
  30. return of fluid and solutes fro peripgeral tissues to the blood
    • return of tissue fluids through lymphatic system maintains normal blood volume and eliminates local variations in composition of interstial fluids
    • 3.6 liters per day
  31. Distribution of hormones,nutrients, waste products from their tissue to origin to circulation
    substances unable to enter the bloodstream directly enter by way of the lymphatic vessels

    for example lipids absorbed by the digestive tract
  32. Objective:
    discuess the importance of lymphocytes and where they are found in the body (pp.513-519)
  33. Three classes of lymphocytes
    • T cells
    • B cells 
    • Nk cells
  34. T cells (thymus dependent cells)
    • 80% of circulating lymphocutes
    • cytotoxic T cells directly attack foreign cells or bcells infected by viruses
    • Primary providers of cell mediated immunity or cellular immunity
  35. helper T cells
    stimulate activites of both T and B cells
  36. Supressor T cells
    inhibit T and b cells
  37. Helper and Supressor T cells are called
    regulatory T Cells
  38. B Cells (bone marrow dervived)
    • 10-15 %
    • B cells can differenciate into plasma cells which produce and secrete antibodies
  39. Antibodies
    • solluable proteins that are also called immunoglobulins
    • antibodies bind to specific chemical targets called antigens
  40. Formation of an antigen- antibody complex starts a chain of events that lead to
    the destruction of the target compound of organism
  41. B Cells are said be responsible for
    • antibody mediated imminity
    • known as humoral(liquid) immunity because antibodies function in body fluids
  42. Nk Cells (natural killer
    • 5-10% 
    • attack foreign cells
    • normal cells infected with viruses, and cancer cells that appear in normal tissues
    • their continual monitoring of peripheral tisues is known as immunological surveillance
  43. Roguhtly 80% of lymphocytes survive at least
    4 years, and some last 20 years or more
  44. Lymphocyte production is
    lymphopoiesis
  45. Lymphopoiesis
    • involves bone marrow and thymus
    • as each lymphocyte develops it becomes more specialized
  46. Hemocytoblasts in bore marrow produce stem cells with two distinct fates
    • Remains in bone marrow and generates B cells and functional NK cells
    • second group migrates to the thymus, produce T cells by influence of thymosins
  47. Lymphocytes may produce
    daughter cells, this important to success of immunity response.
  48. Lymphnoid nodules
    are amsses of lymphoid tissue that are not surround by a fiberous capsule which allsows for increase and decrease in size depending on need
  49. Germinal center
    where lymphocytes actively divide
  50. lymph nodules are found near systems that are open to external exviroment
    which provides a route of entry for bad stuff
  51. Tonsils
    large lymphoid nodules in the walls of the pharynx, guard the entrance to the diestive and respiratory tract
  52. 5 tonsils
    • single pharyngeal tonsil (andenoids)
    • pair of palatine tonsils
    • Pair of linqual tonsils
  53. clusters of lmpyhoid nodules called ____ ____ lie beneath the epithelail lining of the intestines and fused with lmphoid nodules and dominate the walls of the appendix
    peyer's patches
  54. Lymph organs include
    • lymph nodes
    • thymus
    • spleen
  55. Lymph nodes
    small oval lympoid organs covered by fibrous capsule
  56. Afferent lymphatics
    deliver lymph to a lymph node
  57. efferent lympahatics
    carry lymph onward throughout the body
  58. Lymph nodes
    filter and purify lymph before it reaches the venous system
  59. thymus divided into
    • lobules by fibrious partitions or septae
    • each lobule consits of a densely pack outer cortex and plater cental medulla
    • secrete thymosins
  60. thymosisns stimulate
    lymphocyte stem cell division and t cell maturation
  61. Spleen
    • fliters blood instead of lymph
    • intiates the responses of B and T cells to antigens in the circulating blood
    • stores iron from recycled RBCs
  62. Spleen is arranged into areas of
    • red and white pulp
    • red=blood cells
    • white+lymphoid nodules
  63. Red pulp of the spleen enters the venous sinusoids then flows into small veins then to the
    splenic vein
  64. Objective:
    list the body's nonspecific derenses and explain how each functions (pp. 519-522)
  65. Nonspecific defenses
    • do not distinguish between one threat and another, they include
    • Physical barries
    • phagocytic cells
    • immunological surveillance
    • interferons
    • complement
    • inflammation
    • fever
    • known as Nonspecific resistance
  66. Specific defense
    • protect against particular threats
    • virus and bateria
    • may ignore some but attack one
  67. Nonspcific derences
    • deny entry, or limit the spread within the body, of microorgansims or enviromental agents
    • their response is the same regardless of type of invading agent
  68. Physical  barriers
    • keep hazordous materials outside the body
    • to cause infection it must croos the peothelium
    • epithelial layer if effective protection if intact
    • secretions of sebaccous glands and sweat glands flush the surface and wash away microrganisms
    • also contain microbe killing chemicals, destructive enzymes, and antibodies
    • mucous in digestie and respiratory tract
  69. Phyagocytes
    • in peripheral tissues remove celular debris and espond to invasion by forgein compounds or pathogens
    • first line of cellular defenese 
    • micro and marcophages
  70. Microhpages
    • neutrophils
    • eosinohpils
    • circulate blood
    • can leave blood and enter peripheral tissue
    • esinophils attack pathogens covered with antibodies
  71. Macrophages
    • moncytes
    • shelters or visiting macrophages
  72. monocute macrophage system
    diffuse collection of phagocytic cells through the body also called reticuloendothelial system
  73. macrophages and mircophages share
    • diapedis
    • chemotaxis
    • phagocytosis
  74. Constant monitoring of normal tissues is called
    immunological surveilance and primatrily involes lymphocytes known as NK cells
  75. Nk cells recognize
    • ambnormal cells
    • cancer cells infected with birus antigens on a bacterium
  76. Nk cells secrete proteins called
    • perforins
    • kill abnormal cell by creating large pores in its Cell memrane
  77. Immunological escape
    • some cancer cells avoid detection
    • then they can multiply and spread without interference of NK cells
  78. Interferons
    • small proteins released by activated lymphocytes 
    • normal cells exposed to interferon molecuesl repsond by producing antiviral proteins that interfere with viral replication in the cell
    • interferons stimulate the activites of macrophages and NK cells
  79. Interferons
    are examples of cytokines
  80. Compliment system
    • compliment proteins intertact with one another in chain reacions similar to clotting process
    • Compliment activaton is known to 
    • attract phagocytes
    • stimulate phagocytosis
    • destroy cell membranes
    • promote imflamation
  81. Inflamation
    • Mast Cells release heparin and histamine
    • To preform a temporty repair at the inury site and prvent access of additional pathogens
    • slow the spread of pathogens from injury site
    • mobolize a wide range of defense that can overcome the pathogens and aid permanent tissue repair. The repair process is called regneration
  82. Necrosis
    • tissue distruction that occurs after cells have been injured or destroyed.
    • caused by lysomal enzymes
    • breakdown by autolysis
    • accumulates thick fluid mixture kown as pus
    • enclosed tissue space where pus is called abcess
  83. Fever
    • 37.2 99 
    • hypothalamus contains nuclei that regulate body temperature
  84. Pyrogens
    • circulating proteins in effect reset the thermotastat in the hypothalmus and cause a rise in body temperaure 
    • rise in temp increases rate of metabolism, cells move faster and enzymatic reastions proceed quicker
  85. Objective:
    Define specific resisitance and identify the forms and properties of immunity (pp.522-525)
  86. T cells defend againsst
    • abnormal cells and pathogens in living cells 
    • this is called mediated immunity
  87. B cells defend against
    • antigens and pathogens in the body fluid
    • process called antibody mediated immunity of humoral immunity
  88. Innate immunity
    genetically determinded
  89. Acquired immunity
    is not present at birth but instead arises by active or passive means
  90. Active Immunity
    appears after exposeure to an antigen as a consquence of the immune response
  91. Active immunity may occur by
    • naturally acquired immunity
    • and inducced active immunity
  92. Passive immunity
    • is produced by the transfer aof antibodies to an individual from some other soure
    • Aquired, antibodies prodced by other protect her baby against infections during pregnancy
    • Induced, antibodies are administered to fight infection or prevent disease after exposure to the pathogen
  93. Properties of immunity
    • Specificity
    • Versalitity
    • memory
    • tolerance
  94. Specifity
    • specific defense is activated by a specific antigen and immune response targes onlty that particular antigen
    • antigen recognition
  95. Versatility
    Must be ready for any antigen at anytime by producing milliomns of different lymphocyte populations each with different antigen receptors
  96. Memory
    Immune system remembers and will be stronger for the next battle
  97. Tolerance
    ignores normal tissues attacks only nonself
  98. Objective:distinguish between Cell mediated immunity and antibody mediated immunity(pp.527)
  99. Before an immune reaction can begin, T cells must be activated by
    • exposure to an antigen
    • results by direct lymphocyte-antigen reaction.
    • rarely will just he presence of foreign compounds or patjpgens stimulate an immediate response
  100. Antigen recognition
    is the process that activates lymphocytes by spedific antigens
  101. Antigen triggers an immune resonse
    • T cells are activated by phagocytes, that have engulfed the antigen
    • T cell then atack that antigen and stimulate the actiavition of Bcells
    • B cells then mature into cells that produce antibodies
  102. major Histocompatibitiy (MHC) proteins
    membrane receptors grouped into two classes
  103. Class I MHC
    Acts like a red flag that in effect tells the immune system it is an abnormal cell and to kill it
  104. Class II MHC
    Antigen is dangerous, get rid of it
  105. Class I MHC are found on all
    • Nucleated cells
    • if cell is healthy and peptides are normal T cells ignore them
  106. Clas II MHC proteins are found
    • in membranes of lymphocytes and phagocytes called
    • Antigen presenting Cells (APCs)
    • Include marcophages,kupffer cells,and microglia
  107. APCs are specialized  for
    activating T cells to attack foreign cells and foreign proteins
  108. Inactive T cells have receptors that recognize either class I  or II MHC proteins, it activates once
    when its specific receptors detect the Antigen is is programed to destroy- Terminator haha
  109. Upon activation of T cells they
    divide and differentiate into cells with specific funtions in the immune response
  110. Major Cell types of T cells are
    • cytotoxic T cells
    • helper T cells
    • memory T cells
    • supressor T cells
  111. Objective:
    Disscuss the different T cells and the role plated by each in the immune response (pp.528)
  112. Cytotoxic T cells
    • Killer T cells
    • bound to class I MHC
    • activated cells ndergo cell division and produced more active cytoxic and memory cells.
    • track down bacteria,fungi,protozoa, foreign transplanted tissues that contain the target antigen
  113. Cytotoxic T cells destory target in several ways
    • by secretion Lymphotoxin, kills target cell by disrupting its metabolism
    • secreting cytokinds that activate target cell genes that tell the cell to die, programmed cell death is apoptosis
    • by releasing perforin, ruptures the targets cell membrane
  114. Helper T cells
    • Release various cytokines
    • they coordinate specific and non specific defences
    • stimulate cell mediated and antibody meiated immunity.
    • Bound to class II MHC
    • active, they divide to produce memory cells nad more active helper T cells
  115. memory T cells
    Activation of cytotoxic and helper T cells develop memory T cells which  wait till it appears a second time and expodites the attack
  116. Supressor T cells
    • Dampen the responsces of T and B cells by secreting cytokines alled supression facctors
    • Supressor T cells after the initial immuse response. limit the degree of immune response to single stimulus
  117. First Event of antibody mediated immunity is
    sensitization of B cells
  118. Antigens enter the B cell by
    endocytosis and become displayed on Class II MHC proteins on its surface, now the B cell is sensitized, the helper T cell secretes cytokines
  119. Cytokines effects on B cells
    • promoting B cell activation
    • stimulating B cell division
    • accelerating B cell deelpment into plasma cells
  120. B cells divides repeatedly prodcing daughter cells that differentiate into
    plasma cells and memory B cells
  121. Plasma Cells begin synthesizing and secreting large qyantities of
    antibodies that have the same target as the antibodies on the surface of the snetizied B cell
  122. Memory B cells
    act the same as memory T cells
  123. An antibody consists of two parallel pairs of poly peptide:
    one pair of long heavy and one pair of shorter light chains
  124. Each chain contains
    constant and variable segments
  125. Antigen binding sites
    the free tips of the two variable segments
  126. Antigen antibody complex
    when antibody binds to its specific antigen
  127. Antigenic determinant sites
    certain portions of exposed surfaces that they bind to
  128. 5 classes of antibodies/Immunoglobulins
    cheya
  129. Classes of antibodies function/ remarks
    IgG
    • responsible for defense against many viruses and bacteria, and bacterial toxins
    • Largest class 80% of antibodies w/ several subtypes
    • also cross the plecenta and provide passive immunity to fetues
    • Anti Rh antibodies produced by Rh negative mothers are IgG
  130. Classes of antibodies function/ remarks
    IgM
    • Anti A and anti B forms responsible for cross reations between incompatable blood types;
    • other forsm attack bacetera insentive to IgG
    • first antibody secreted following arrival of antigens; levels decline as IgG production accelerates
  131. IgA
    • attacks pathogens before they enter body tissues
    • found in glandular secreations
  132. Classes of antibodies function/ remarks
    IgE
    • Accelerate inflammation on exposure to antigen
    • bound to surfaces of mast cells and basophuls and stimlates other inflammatory chemicals
    • important in allergic response
  133. Classes of antibodies function/ remarks
    IgD
    • bind antigens in the extracellular fluid to b cells
    • binding can play role in actiation of b cells
  134. Formation of the antigen-antibody complex may elimination:
    • Neutralization
    • agglutination and precpitation
    • activation of complement
    • attaction of phagocytes
    • enchancement of phagocytosis
    • stimulation of inflammation
  135. Hormones of the immune system
  136. Cytokines are classified according to their source
    • Lymphokines- lymphocytes
    • monokines- macrophages nad other antigen presenting cells
  137. Interleukins (IL)
    • may be the most diverse and importnat chemical messenger in the immune system
    • widespread effects including
    • increasing T cell sensitivity to antigens presended on macrophage membranes
    • stimulating B cell activity 
    • antibody production
    • enhancing non specific defences
    • some help supress immune response
  138. interferonds
    • released by the synthesizing cell make it neighboers resistant to viral infection, slowing spread.
    • stimulates NK and macrophages
  139. Tumor Necrosis factos (TNF)
    • slow tumor growth and kill sensitive tumor cells
    • stimulate prodcution of neutrophils, eosinophils and basophiles
    • promote eosinophil activity 
    • cause fever
    • increases T cell snesitiy to interleukins
  140. CSF
    CSF stimulate production of blood cells and bone marrow and lmphocyts in lymphoid tissue and organs

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